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Les derniers abstracts de la revue Gastroenterology :

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 25 mai 2017
    Alicia S. Wellman, Mallikarjuna R. Metukuri, Nevzat Kazgan, Xiaojiang Xu, Qing Xu, Natalie S.X. Ren, Agnieszka Czopik, Michael T. Shanahan, Ashley Kang, Willa Chen, M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Ajay S. Gulati, David C. Fargo, Leonard Guarente, Xiaoling Li
    Intestinal Epithelial Sirtuin 1 Regulates Intestinal Inflammation during Aging in Mice by Altering the Intestinal Microbiota
    Intestinal epithelial homeostasis is maintained by complex interactions among epithelial cells, commensal gut microorganisms, and immune cells. Disruption of this homeostasis is associated with disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, but the mechanisms of this process are not clear. We investigated how Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a conserved mammalian NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, senses environmental stress to alter intestinal integrity.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 25 mai 2017
    Lotte Bruens, Saskia I.J. Ellenbroek, Jacco van Rheenen, Hugo J. Snippert
    In vivo Imaging Reveals Existence of Crypt Fission and Fusion in Adult Mouse Intestine
    The intestinal epithelium is a repetitive sheet of crypt and villus units with stem cells at the bottom of the crypts. During postnatal development, crypts multiply via fission, generating 2 daughter crypts from 1 parental crypt. In the adult intestine, crypt fission is observed at a low frequency. Using intravital microscopy in Lgr5EGFP-Ires-CreERT2 mice, we monitored individual crypt dynamics over multiple days with single-cell resolution. We discovered the existence of crypt fusion, an almost exact reverse phenomenon of crypt fission, in which 2 crypts fuse into 1 daughter crypt.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 23 mai 2017
    Kaplan GG, Ng SC. Understanding and preventing the global increase of inflammatory bowel Disease. Gastroenterology 2017;152:313-321.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 22 mai 2017
    Jocelyn A. Silvester, Satya Kurada, Andrea Szwajcer, CiarĂĄn P. Kelly, Daniel A. Leffler, Donald R. Duerksen
    Tests for Serum Transglutaminase and Endomysial Antibodies Do Not Detect Most Patients With Celiac Disease and Persistent Villous Atrophy on Gluten-free Diets: a Meta-analysis
    Tests to measure serum endomysial antibodies (EMA) and antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (tTG) were developed to screen for celiac disease in patients consuming gluten. However, they are commonly used to monitor patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD). We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the sensitivity and specificity of tTG IgA and EMA IgA assays in identifying patients with celiac disease who have persistent villous atrophy despite a GFD.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 20 mai 2017
    Melinda RĂĄki, Shiva Dahal-Koirala, Hao Yu, Ilma R. Korponay-SzabĂł, Judit Gyimesi, Gemma Castillejo, JĂžrgen Jahnsen, Shuo-Wang Qiao, Ludvig M. Sollid
    Similar Responses of Intestinal T-cells From Untreated Children and Adults With Celiac Disease to Deamidated Gluten Epitopes
    Celiac disease is a chronic small intestinal inflammatory disorder mediated by an immune response to gluten peptides in genetically susceptible individuals. Celiac disease is often diagnosed in early childhood, but some patients receive a diagnosis late in life. It is uncertain whether pediatric celiac disease is distinct from adult celiac disease. It has been proposed that gluten-reactive T cells in children recognize deamidated and native gluten epitopes, whereas T cells from adults only recognize deamidated gluten peptides.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 19 mai 2017
    Ratziu V, Harrison SA, Francque S, et al. Elafibranor, an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator—activated receptor—α and —ή, induces resolution of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis without fibrosis worsening. Gastroenterology 2016;150:1147–1159.e5.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 18 mai 2017
    Michael F. Vaezi, Yu-Xiao Yang, Colin W. Howden
    Complications of Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy
    Safety issues associated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have recently attracted widespread media and lay attention. Gastroenterologists are frequently asked about the appropriateness of PPI therapy for specific patients. Furthermore, some patients may have had PPI therapy discontinued abruptly or inappropriately due to safety concerns. Faced with such a wide variety of potentially serious adverse consequences, prescribers need to evaluate the evidence objectively to discern the likelihood that any reported association might actually be causal.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 18 mai 2017
    John M. Abraham, Stephen J. Meltzer
    Long Noncoding RNAs in the Pathogenesis of Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Carcinoma
    For many years, only a small fraction of the human genome was believed to regulate cell function and development. This protein-coding portion composed only 1% to 2% of 3 billion human DNA base pairs—the remaining sequence was classified as junk DNA. Subsequent research has revealed that most of the genome is transcribed into a broad array of noncoding RNAs, ranging in size from microRNA (20–23 nucleotides) to long noncoding RNA (lncRNA, more than 200 nucleotides). These noncoding RNA classes have been shown to use diverse molecular mechanisms to control gene expression and organ system development.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 15 mai 2017
    Soo Young Cho, Jun Won Park, Yang Liu, Young Soo Park, Ju Hee Kim, Hanna Yang, Hyejin Um, Woo Ri Ko, Byung Il Lee, Sun Young Kwon, Seung Wan Ryu, Chae Hwa Kwon, Do Youn Park, Jae-Hyuk Lee, Sang Il Lee, Kyu Sang Song, Hoon Hur, Sang-Uk Han, Heekyung Chang, Su-Jin Kim, Byung-Sik Kim, Jeong-Hwan Yook, Moon-Won Yoo, Beom-Su Kim, In-Seob Lee, Myeong-Cherl Kook, Nina Thiessen, An He, Chip Stewart, Andrew Dunford, Jaegil Kim, Juliann Shih, Gordon Saksena, Andrew D. Cherniack, Steven Schumacher, Amaro-Taylor Weiner, Mara Rosenberg, Gad Getz, Eun Gyeong Yang, Min Hee Ryu, Adam J. Bass, Hark Kyun Kim
    Sporadic Early-onset Diffuse Gastric Cancers Have High Frequency of Somatic CDH1 Alterations but Low Frequency of Somatic RHOA Mutations Compared with Late-onset Cancers
    Early-onset gastric cancer, which develops in younger patients than most gastric cancers, is usually detected at advanced stages, has diffuse histologic features, and occurs more frequently in women. We investigated somatic genomic alterations associated with the unique characteristics of sporadic diffuse gastric cancers (DGCs) from younger patients.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 13 mai 2017
    Philip W. Voorneveld, Marlies S. Reimers, Esther Bastiaannet, Rutger J. Jacobs, Ronald van Eijk, Marjolein M.J. Zanders, Ron M.C. Herings, Myrthe P.P. van Herk-Sukel, Liudmila L. Kodach, Tom van Wezel, Peter J.K. Kuppen, Hans Morreau, Cornelis J.H. van de Velde, James C.H. Hardwick, Gerrit Jan Liefers
    Statin Use After Diagnosis of Colon Cancer and Patient Survival
    Statin use has been associated with a reduced incidence of colorectal cancer, and might also affect survival of patients diagnosed with colon cancer. Statins are believed to inhibit Ras signaling, and also activate the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in colorectal cancer cells. We investigated the effects of statins on overall survival of patients with a diagnosis of colon cancer, and whether their effects were associated with changes in KRAS or the BMP signaling pathways.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 12 mai 2017
    Pankaj Yadav, David Ellinghaus, Gaëlle Rémy, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Anabelle Cesaro, Frauke Degenhardt, Gabrielle Boucher, Myriam Delacre, The International IBD Genetics Consortium (IIBDGC), Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Muriel Pichavant, John D. Rioux, Philippe Gosset, Andre Franke, L. Philip Schumm, Michael Krawczak, Mathias Chamaillard, Astrid Dempfle, Vibeke Andersen
    Genetic Factors Interact With Tobacco Smoke to Modify Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Humans and Mice
    The role of tobacco smoke in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. We investigated interactions between genes and smoking (gene–smoking interactions) that affect risk for Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in a case-only study of patients and in mouse models of IBD.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 10 mai 2017
    Jae Myung Park, Sol Mi Huo, Han Hee Lee, Bo-In Lee, Ho Jin Song, Myung-Gyu Choi
    Longer Observation Time Increases Proportion of Neoplasms Detected by Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
    Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is commonly used to detect upper gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, there is little evidence that longer examination time increases rate of detection of upper GI neoplasia. We investigated the association between length of time spent performing a normal screening EGD and rate of neoplasm detection.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 09 mai 2017
    Yen-I. Chen, Yamile Haito-Chavez, Renata Pieratti Bueno, Majidah Bukhari, Olaya Brewer Gutierrez, Omid Sanaei, Mouen A. Khashab
    Displaced EUS-guided gastroenterostomy stent rescued with natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 06 mai 2017
    Pichamol Jirapinyo, Christopher C. Thompson
    This Could Make You Pull Your Hair Out
    Question: A 23-year-old woman with a history of acid reflux, trichotillomania and trichophagia with reported last ingestion four years prior presented with a three week history of postprandial epigastric and right upper quadrant pain, nausea and vomiting. She denied fevers, chills, melena or hematochezia. Vital signs were within normal limits. Abdominal exam was notable for mild tenderness at the epigastrium with negative Murphy’s sign. Blood chemistry, complete blood count, and liver function tests were normal.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 05 mai 2017
    David T. Okou, Steven R. Brant, Claire L. Simpson, Talin Haritunians, Chengrui Huang, Dermot P.B. McGovern, Subra Kugathasan
    We thank the authors for their interest in our original article.1 We have read their argument and we offer responses on 2 main points: (1) “The challenges with studying populations of non-European ancestry remains one of terminology” and (2) “So although the authors describe the potential for identifying risk prediction for AA [African Americans], this may not be applicable to all patients as the term reflects a broad racial group and ignores genetic origin and ethnic factors.”

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 05 mai 2017
    Manon van der Vlugt, Esmée J. Grobbee, Patrick M.M. Bossuyt, Amanda Bos, Evelien Bongers, Wolfert Spijker, Ernst J. Kuipers, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Manon C.W. Spaander, Evelien Dekker
    Interval Colorectal Cancer Incidence Among Subjects Undergoing Multiple Rounds of Fecal Immunochemical Testing
    Among subjects screened for colorectal cancer (CRC) by the guaiac fecal occult blood test, interval cancers develop in 48%–55% of the subjects. Data are limited on how many persons screened by fecal immunochemical tests (FIT), over multiple rounds, develop interval cancers. In the Netherlands, a pilot FIT-based biennial CRC screening program was conducted between 2006 and 2014. We collected and analyzed data from the program on CRCs detected during screening (SD-CRC) and CRCs not detected within the screening program (non–SD-CRC; such as FIT interval cancers, colonoscopy interval cancers and cancer in non-participants).

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 05 mai 2017
    Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Geoffrey B. Hall, Kathy Ghajar, Andrea Nardelli, Carolina Bolino, Jennifer T. Lau, Francois-Pierre Martin, Ornella Cominetti, Christopher Welsh, Amber Rieder, Jenna Traynor, Caitlin Gregory, Giada De Palma, Marc Pigrau, Alexander C. Ford, Joseph Macri, Bernard Berner, Gabriela Bergonzelli, Michael G. Surette, Stephen M. Collins, Paul Moayyedi, Premysl Bercik
    Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: a Pilot Study in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    Probiotics can reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about their effects on psychiatric comorbidities. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 (BL) on anxiety and depression in patients with IBS.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 05 mai 2017
    An-qi He, Kai-yu Li, Gang Liu
    A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain
    Question: A 62-year-old woman presented with sudden abdominal pain in the left lower quadrant for 2 days. The needle-like abdominal pain was aggravated when changing body position and during defecation, but remitted when lying flat. She had a history of cerebral infarction and had been accepting acupuncture therapy at the right Huantiao (GB30) acupoint, one-third of the distance from the femoral greater trochanter peak to the sacral hiatus. Physical examination revealed left lower abdominal tenderness without other symptoms.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 05 mai 2017
    Khalil Aloreidi, Jeremy Berg, Bhavesh Patel
    An Unusual Cause of Coffee Ground Emesis
    Question: A 58-year-old woman presented with multiple episodes of coffee ground emesis with no associated melena or hematochezia. The patient reported no prior history of gastrointestinal bleeding. She had multiple medical comorbidities, including hypertension, tobacco dependence, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. She is currently off anticoagulant medication owing to noncompliance and a history of recurrent falls. She does take 81 mg of aspirin daily. On admission, she was hemodynamically stable except for irregular heart rhythm.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Marieke L. van Engelenburg–van Lonkhuyzen
    We appreciate the interest of Summeren et al in our study and their careful and thorough discussion of the potential caveats and context required to interpret our findings.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    John J. Fung, Gregory T. Everson, David van Thiel
    Obituary: The Impact of Thomas Earl Starzl, MD, PhD
    “Tis after death that we measure men”—James Barron Hope

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    John H. Winston, Xuan-Zheng Shi, Don W. Powell
    Sushil K. Sarna, PhD—In Memoriam
    Dr Sushil K. Sarna, the Charlotte Warmoth Professor of Internal Medicine and Professor of Neurosciences and Cell Biology at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX, passed away on February 27, 2017 after a short illness. Sushil will be missed by his friends and colleagues the world over, but especially by his wife, Rajni, his son Achal, his daughter-in-law Nmita and four grandchildren: Anika, Anya, Krish and Keshav.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Harminder Singh, Zoann Nugent, B Nancy Yu, Lisa M. Lix, Laura E. Targownik, Charles N. Bernstein
    Higher Incidence of Clostridium difficile Infection Among Individuals With Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Studies of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) among individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have used data from single centers or CDI administrative data codes of limited diagnostic accuracy. We determined the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes after CDI in a population-based cohort of patients with IBD and laboratory confirmation diagnoses of CDI.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Valeria Severino, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Myriam Delhaye, Solange Moll, Isabelle Annessi-Ramseyer, Xavier Robin, Jean-Louis Frossard, Annarita Farina
    Extracellular Vesicles in Bile as Markers of Malignant Biliary Stenoses
    Algorithms for diagnosis of malignant common bile duct (CBD) stenoses are complex and lack accuracy. Malignant tumors secrete large numbers of extracellular vesicles (EVs) into surrounding fluids; EVs might therefore serve as biomarkers for diagnosis. We investigated whether concentrations of EVs in bile could discriminate malignant from nonmalignant CBD stenoses.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Lorenzo Loffredo, Daniele Pastori, Alessio Farcomeni, Francesco Violi
    Effects of Anticoagulants in Patients With Cirrhosis and Portal Vein Thrombosis: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Liver cirrhosis is complicated by bleeding from portal hypertension but also by portal vein thrombosis (PVT). PVT occurs in about 20%–50% of patients with cirrhosis, and is a warning sign for poor outcome. It is a challenge to treat patients with cirrhosis using anticoagulants, because of the perception that the coexistent coagulopathy could promote bleeding. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effects of anticoagulant therapy in patients with cirrhosis and PVT.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Exam 3: Micro-Coordination of Pacemaker Potentials in the Intestine of the Mouse

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Exam 1: Timely Use of Probiotics in Hospitalized Adults Prevents Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review With Meta-Regression Analysis

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Exam 2: Menopausal Hormone Therapy Is Associated With Increased Risk of Fecal Incontinence in Women After Menopause

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Farnaz Shariati, Hyung Sun Yoo, Virendra Joshi
    Peripancreatic Mass of Unknown Origin
    Question: A 66-year-old man with past medical history of asthma, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, hypoganadism, and gynecomastia presented with acute abdominal pain that led to an emergency room computed tomography (CT) scan revealing kidney stones. He was then referred to urology for long-term management. Surprisingly, a new mass near his pancreas and stomach was found in the repeat CT scan (Figure A). The homogenous-appearing lesion identified adjacent to the pancreatic body was measured to be about 3.7 cm and demonstrated calcification.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Yoku Hayakawa, Timothy C. Wang
    Isthmus Progenitors, Not Chief Cells, Are the Likely Origin of Metaplasia in eR1-CreERT; LSL-KrasG12D Mice
    We read with great interest the recent publication by Matsuo et al1 and the accompanying editorial by Goldenring and Mills.2 We agree with the authors that the Runx1 enhancer element, eR1, marks among other cell types a stem cell population within the gastric isthmus. Gastric stem cells reside within the corpus isthmus and supply progeny bidirectionally toward the top and base of glands.3,4 Findings in the paper1 confirm previous studies by our group that first demonstrated an isthmus corpus stem cell marked by Mist1.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Jojanneke van Summeren, Janny Dekker, Marjolein Berger
    Pelvic Physiotherapy in Children With Functional Constipation: Promising But More Research Needed
    We congratulate van Engelenburg-van Lonkhuyzen et al1 on their study on the effectiveness of pelvic physiotherapy in children with functional constipation. This randomized, controlled trial showed that pelvic physiotherapy was more effective than standard medical care in the treatment of children with constipation after 6 months of follow-up. This is the first study exploring a promising nonpharmacologic treatment for functional constipation in children with a longer follow-up. The results are in line with an earlier study by Silva et al2 that showed a significantly positive effect of a 6-week physiotherapy program on defecation frequency.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Ravi Misra, Naila Arebi
    Re: Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies African-Specific Susceptibility Loci in African Americans With Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    We read with great interest the original article by Brant et al.1 The discovery of African American (AA)-specific loci and loci that are shared between ethnic groups highlight the importance of studying inflammatory bowel disease in other populations apart from Europeans for a unique insight into the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The challenges with studying populations of non-European ancestry remains one of terminology. The main drawback is that the difference between race and ethnicity is not clearly defined in most studies.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Muhammad Ali Khan, George Cholankeril, Colin W. Howden
    Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Possible Development of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Cirrhotic Patients: True Association or Residual Confounding?
    In their recent study, Tsai et al1 evaluated a possible association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in patients with cirrhosis. This is the second report of which we are aware that has examined this possible association. The first was a retrospective study by Dam et al2 that derived its population cohort from 3 separate clinical trials that were not designed to evaluate an association between PPI use and HE. They reported a hazard ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.84) after adjusting for multiple factors, all of which were significantly associated with HE, and also noted that only 66% of their patients had a valid indication for PPI use.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Julie Assaraf, Nicolas Weiss, Dominique Thabut
    Proton Pump Inhibitor Administration Triggers Encephalopathy in Cirrhotic Patients by Modulating Blood–Brain Barrier Drug Transport
    We read with interest the article by Tsai et al1 in a recent issue of Gastroenterology, which highlights the influence of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) use on encephalopathy occurrence in cirrhotic patients. This case control study performed in a large series of cirrhotic patients demonstrated a relationship between PPIs intake and the onset of a first hepatic encephalopathy (HE) episode, outlining a dose-dependent risk (odds ratios from 1.41 to 3.01). The authors explained the increased risk of HE by an alteration of gut microbiota under PPIs treatment, which equilibrium also seems to be disrupted in cirrhotic patients, especially during HE.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Shounak Majumder, Sukhman Shergill, Conor G. Loftus
    A Young Man With Abdominal Pain, Weight Loss, and Jaundice
    Question: A 20-year-old, previously healthy college student developed acute abdominal pain and vomiting. Symptoms started about 2 weeks before presentation. His pain was epigastric and nonradiating and the emesis was bilious and nonbloody. He reported weight loss of 30 lbs over the preceding 9 months. He has no history of alcohol use or previous abdominal surgery. On physical examination he has conjunctival icterus, abdominal distention, and diffuse abdominal tenderness without signs of peritonitis.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Astrid De Zutter, Bart Maes, Franceska Dedeurwaerdere
    A Multifocal Abdominal Mass in a Renal Transplant Recipient
    Question: A 69-year-old renal transplant patient was hospitalized because of persistent dyspepsia, anorexia with progressive weight loss, and intermittent loose stools. She received a cadaveric kidney 18 months ago complicated by an acute antibody-mediated rejection that was treated with corticosteroids, plasma exchange, antithymocyte, and Îł-globulins, resulting in a stable renal transplant function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 43 mL/min/1.73 m2 without proteinuria) under triple maintenance immunosuppressive therapy (methylprednisolone, 2 mg/d; tacrolimus trough level, 8 ÎŒg/mL; and mycophenolate, 2 × 500 mg/d).

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Puneet Chhabra, Rahat Brar, Deepak K. Bhasin
    An Intriguing Cause of Dysphagia
    Question: A 64-year-old man presented with intermittent episodes of dysphagia to solids, which has been nonprogressive over the past 3 months. He denied any history of chest pain, vomiting, reflux symptoms, loss of appetite, or loss of weight. He is on treatment with 5 mg of amlodipine for hypertension and has had 3 episodes of transient ischemic attacks in past 2 years. For his neurologic symptoms, he has been extensively evaluated and is on treatment with 75 mg aspirin and 10 mg atorvastatin.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Divyanshoo R. Kohli, H. Robert Lippman, Tilak U. Shah
    A Patient With AIDS and an Unusual Cause of Jaundice
    Question: A 59-year-old man presented to the clinic with 5 days of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, pruritus, and scleral icterus. The pain was constant, dull, nonradiating, and not associated with fever or rigors. His medical history pertinent for a diagnosis of AIDS 7 months before presentation. The patient subsequently had developed cytomegalovirus retinitis and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. Physical examination was remarkable for scleral icterus and mild tenderness to deep palpation in the right upper quadrant without any rebound or guarding.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Maria Ana TĂșlio, Pedro Figueiredo, JoĂŁo Cassis
    Rare Cause for a Colonic Ulcerated Stricture
    Question: A 70-year-old male patient, with a history of Madelung disease, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, was diagnosed with a stage IV adenocarcinoma of the cephalic portion of the pancreas.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Puneet Chhabra, Rahat Brar, Deepak K. Bhasin
    Unusual Case of Abdominal Pain: Finding the Missing Part
    Question: A 24-year-old man presented to us with a 6-month history of epigastric pain aggravated by meals. Additional history revealed no radiation of the pain or any associated symptoms of loss of appetite, loss of weight, use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs before the onset of pain, recent trauma, or surgery. General physical and systemic examinations were unremarkable. Laboratory testing showed normal serum amylase and lipase levels. His blood sugars and glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) were also within normal limits (fasting blood sugar, 96 mg/dL [normal, <100], postprandial blood sugar, 116 mg/dL [normal, <200), HbA1c, 5.4 [normal range, 4.2–6.2]).

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Benham Saberi, Sunhee Park, James Buxbaum
    An Unusual Case of Iron Deficiency and Cardiac Murmur
    Question: A 22-year-old man presented with 1-week history of left-sided chest pain radiating to the back and fatigue. Past medical history was significant for truncus arteriosus with late valvular repair complicated by secondary pulmonary hypertension. Additionally, he had a history of multiple admissions for iron deficiency anemia requiring multiple blood transfusions over the past 16 years in Guatemala.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 04 mai 2017
    Hiang Keat Tan, Wei Qiang Leow, Pik Eu Chang
    Ruxolitinib for the Treatment of Portal Hypertension in a Patient With Primary Myelofibrosis
    Primary myelofibrosis is a form of myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by stem-cell derived clonal proliferation, resulting in bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly and extramedullary haematopoiesis, with portal hypertension (PHT) occuring in 10%–20% of patients. Here, we report a patient with primary myelofibrosis whose PHT improved significantly following treatment with ruxolitinib, thereby allowing discontinuation of all drug therapy for PHT.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 03 mai 2017
    Giorgio A. Roccaro, David S. Goldberg
    Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Treatment With Direct-Acting Antivirals: Selection Bias or Biologically Plausible?
    Conti F, Buonfiglioli F, Scuteri A, et al. Early occurrence and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV-related cirrhosis treated with direct-acting antivirals. J Hepatol 2016;65(4):727-733.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 03 mai 2017
    Michael F. Vaezi

    I read with great interest this hardback book, which is compiled as an atlas of esophageal diseases. The authors should be congratulated for a very nice product, which I am sure will serve as a resource to many interested in better understanding of esophageal diseases. The book was written to serve as “a single reference for anyone caring for patients with esophageal disease,” a high target, which it reached only partially. It contains 10 chapters with numerous color figures ranging from anatomy and histology (Chapters 1 and 2) to esophageal mucosal findings during endoscopy (Chapter 3), radiographic and endoscopic ultrasound anatomy (Chapter 4 and 5), and endoluminal and surgical techniques, as well as the management of esophageal leaks and fistulas (Chapters 6-10).

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 03 mai 2017
    Andrew T. Chan, Christopher S. Williams
    Covering the Cover
    In a small study of patients with esophagitis or Barrett’s esophagus, a weight-lifter belt increased postprandial gastroesophageal reflux.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 29 avril 2017
    Gary W. Falk, Gregory G. Ginsberg, David A. Katzka, Rotonya M. Carr, Kathryn E. Hamilton, Gary D. Wu
    Presentation of the Julius M. Friedenwald Medal to Anil K. Rustgi
    Established in 1941, the Julius M. Friedenwald Medal honors an individual who has contributed significantly to the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) and has made lifelong contributions to the field of gastroenterology. This is the highest honor bestowed upon an AGA member.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 29 avril 2017
    Elizabeth T. Jensen, Evan S. Dellon
    Household Dust, Innate Immunity, and the Amish: Lessons for Eosinophilic Esophagitis?
    Stein MM, Hrusch CL, Gozdz J, et al. Innate Immunity and Asthma Risk in Amish and Hutterite Farm Children. N Engl J Med 2016;375:411-421.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 29 avril 2017
    Paolo Biancheri, Alastair J.M. Watson
    The Relative Contributions of the Gut Microbiome, Host Genetics, and Environment to Cytokine Responses to Microbial Stimulation
    Li Y, Oosting M, Smeekens SP, et al. A functional genomics approach to understand variation in cytokine production in humans. Cell 2016;167:1099-1110.e14.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 28 avril 2017
    Uma Mahadevan
    How to Get an Education in Inflammatory Bowel Disease During Fellowship: Expectations and Realities
    For gastroenterology (GI) fellows, exposure to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during training will vary widely based on institutional expertise, educational standards, personal interest, and resources to attend regional and national meetings. This exposure may run the gamut from seeing the rare hospitalized IBD patient to months of focused IBD clinical and research training. So what is the standard and the expectation for all trainees? Competency for esophagogastroduodenoscopies is well-defined by the Gastroenterology Core Curriculum1—a minimum of 130 esophagogastroduodenoscopies, of which there should be 25 nonvariceal (10 actively bleeding) and 20 variceal (5 actively bleeding) procedures.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 28 avril 2017
    Caitlin C. Murphy, Jennifer L. Lund, Robert S. Sandler
    Young-Onset Colorectal Cancer: Earlier Diagnoses or Increasing Disease Burden?
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in the United States have changed strikingly in recent decades. Overall, CRC incidence decreased by >30% from 1975 (59.5 per 100,000) to 2013 (37.9 per 100,000).1 CRC mortality similarly declined from 28.1 per 100,000 in 1975 to 14.5 per 100,000 in 2013—nearly a 50% decrease.1 Screen-eligible populations, particularly those over age 65, have experienced the largest declines in incidence and mortality.2,3

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 28 avril 2017
    Aparana Kalyan, Laura Kulik
    Multidisciplinary Care in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Where Do We Go From Here?
    Over the last 4 decades, advances in surgical techniques, locoregional therapy imaging, and systemic therapy have significantly improved overall survival (OS) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).1 HCC’s complex nature, influenced by tumor burden, liver function/portal hypertension, and performance status, emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary approach to enhance outcomes. Serper et al2 report factors that influenced the delivery of active HCC therapy and OS in 3988 HCC patients diagnosed between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010, at 128 Veteran’s Affairs (VA) medical centers, with follow-up through December 31, 2014.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 28 avril 2017
    Kjetil SĂžreide
    Gallstone Disease and Cancer Risk: Finding the Bug in the System
    Bile acid synthesis and composition is tightly controlled through the mechanisms involved in the enterohepatic circulation, also referred to as the gut–microbiota–liver axis (Figure 1A). Disruptions in the balance—be it through genetic, metabolic, or environmental influences—may lead to the formation of gallstones.1 Although most gallstones are silent, symptomatic disease is a considerable health problem with 1.4 million ambulatory visits and 750,000 cholecystectomies per year in the United States alone.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 28 avril 2017
    Krishna Rao, Vincent B. Young
    Probiotics for Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Hospitalized Patients: Is the Jury Still Out?
    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased in the past decade, despite intensified efforts at prevention including infection control and antimicrobial stewardship.1 This has led to the exploration of additional means to reduce the incidence of primary CDI, including vaccines,2 fecal microbiota transplantation,3 isolation of colonized patients,4 and probiotics. Probiotics are an attractive option because they are widely available, inexpensive, and administered easily.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 28 avril 2017
    Evangelos Kalaitzakis, Einar S. Björnsson
    Predictors of the Clinical Course of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
    The clinical course of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is highly variable. Some patients are asymptomatic for years, whereas others develop end-stage liver disease or cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) shortly after diagnosis.1–4 Previous studies have reported a median transplant-free survival between 12 and 21 years1,2 and a cumulative 10-year risk of CCA of 6%–11%.2,3 PSC is typically associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), most commonly ulcerative colitis (UC). Recent reports have demonstrated a more benign clinical course of the disease in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) compared with those with UC.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 28 avril 2017
    Alan Moss, Kumanan Nalankilli
    The Association Between Diet and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Moving Beyond Generalizations
    “Thank you for removing those polyps during the colonoscopy today. If I change my diet, can I reduce the risk of developing more polyps or colon cancer in the future?” This is one of the most commonly posed questions by our patients, after being informed of the outcome of their colonoscopy. It is admittedly tempting to answer somewhat flippantly that they will be returning for surveillance colonoscopies in the years to come, so they should take advantage of this and enjoy an unrestricted diet in the interim! However, recent data on the relationship between diet and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, combined with the knowledge that colonoscopy is certainly not completely protective against CRC,1 increasingly supports the need to answer our patients with a considered, scientifically valid and practical response.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 28 avril 2017
    Jeffrey K. Lee, David Lieberman
    Surveillance for One or Two Small Adenomas: Low Risk Is Really Low Risk
    The optimal timing for postpolypectomy surveillance for low-risk adenomas, defined as 1-2 small tubular adenomas, has remained a challenge for clinicians and guideline developers over the past 4 decades. From the 1970s to the 1990s, it was common practice for clinicians to recommend annual surveillance for even a small adenoma (ie, <10 mm), because of the perceived knowledge that all adenomas were premalignant.1 In 1993, the National Polyp Study helped to provide much needed evidence for the timing of postpolypectomy surveillance by showing there was no difference in the risk of finding an advanced adenoma at 1 and 3 years after the baseline colonoscopy versus 3 years alone.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 28 avril 2017
    Johannes Wolf, David Petroff, Thomas Richter, Marcus KH. Auth, Holm H. Uhlig, Martin W. Laass, Peter Lauenstein, Andreas Krahl, Norman HĂ€ndel, Jan de Laffolie, Almuthe C. Hauer, Thomas Kehler, Gunter Flemming, Frank Schmidt, Astor Rodriques, Dirk Hasenclever, Thomas Mothes
    Validation of Antibody-based Strategies for Diagnosis of Pediatric Celiac Disease Without Biopsy
    A diagnosis of celiac disease is made based on clinical, genetic, serologic, and duodenal morphology features. Recent pediatric guidelines, based largely on retrospective data, propose omitting biopsy analysis for patients with concentrations of immunoglobulin A against tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TTG) more than 10-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) and if further criteria are met. A retrospective study concluded that measurements of IgA-TTG and total IgA, or IgA-TTG and IgG against deamidated gliadin (IgG-DGL) could identify patients with and without celiac disease.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 26 avril 2017
    James K.Y. Hooi, Wan Ying Lai, Wee Khoon Ng, Michael M.Y. Suen, Fox E. Underwood, Divine Tanyingoh, Peter Malfertheiner, David Y. Graham, Vincent W.S. Wong, Justin C.Y. Wu, Francis K.L. Chan, Joseph J.Y. Sung, Gilaad G. Kaplan, Siew C. Ng
    Global Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection has changed with improvements in sanitation and methods of eradication. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate changes in the global prevalence of H pylori infection.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 26 avril 2017
    Stephen M. Laidlaw, Svetlana Marukian, Rachel H. Gilmore, SiobhĂĄn B. Cashman, Volodymyr Nechyporuk-Zloy, Charles M. Rice, Lynn B. Dustin
    Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibits Spread of Hepatitis C Virus Among Liver Cells, Independent from Interferons
    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) an inflammatory cytokine expressed by human fetal liver cells (HFLCs) following infection with cell culture-derived hepatitis C virus. TNF has been reported to increase entry of HCV pseudoparticles into hepatoma cells and inhibit signaling by interferon alpha (IFNA), but have no effect on replication of HCV RNA. We investigated the effects of TNF on HCV infection of and spread among Huh-7 hepatoma cells and primary HFLCs. 

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 21 avril 2017
    Yujiro Hayashi, Yoshitaka Toyomasu, Siva Arumugam Saravanaperumal, Michael R. Bardsley, John A. Smestad, Andrea Lorincz, Seth T. Eisenman, Gianluca Cipriani, Molly H. Nelson Holte, Fatimah J. Al Khazal, Sabriya A. Syed, Gabriella B. Gajdos, Kyoung Moo Choi, Gary J. Stoltz, Katie E. Miller, Michael L. Kendrick, Brian P. Rubin, Simon J. Gibbons, Adil E. Bharucha, David R. Linden, Louis James Maher, Gianrico Farrugia, Tamas Ordog
    Hyperglycemia Increases Interstitial Cells of Cajal via MAPK1 and MAPK3 Signaling to ETV1 and KIT, Leading to Rapid Gastric Emptying
    Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) is common in diabetic gastroparesis. However, in approximately 20% of patients with diabetes, gastric emptying (GE) is accelerated. GE is also faster in obese individuals, and is associated with increased blood levels of glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. To understand the fate of ICCs in hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic states characterized by rapid GE, we studied mice with mutation of the leptin receptor (Leprdb/db), which in our colony had accelerated GE.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 21 avril 2017
    Lidiya G. Dimova, Jan Freark de Boer, Josee Plantinga, Torsten Plösch, Menno Hoekstra, Henkjan J. Verkade, Uwe J.F. Tietge
    Low dietary cholesterol availability during lactation programs intestinal absorption of cholesterol in adult mice
    In nematodes, the intestine senses and integrates early-life dietary cues that lead to lifelong epigenetic adaptations to a perceived nutritional environment—it is not clear whether this process occurs in mammals. We aimed to establish a mouse model of reduced dietary cholesterol availability from maternal milk and investigate the consequences of decreased milk cholesterol availability, early in life, on metabolism of cholesterol in adult mice. We blocked intestinal absorption of cholesterol in milk fed to newborn mice by supplementing the food of dams (for 3 weeks between birth and weaning) with ezetimibe, which is secreted into milk.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 20 avril 2017
    Huihui Li, Matjaz Rokavec, Longchang Jiang, David Horst, Heiko Hermeking
    Antagonistic Effects of p53 and HIF1A on microRNA-34a Regulation of PPP1R11 and STAT3 and Hypoxia-induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Colorectal Cancer Cells
    In colorectal tumors, hypoxia causes resistance to therapy and promotes metastasis. Loss of the tumor suppressor p53 (encoded by TP53) provides cancer cells with a selective advantage under conditions of hypoxia, but little is known about the mediators of this effect.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 19 avril 2017
    Hirotaka Morishita, Naoko Iwata, Chiho Takai, Naoto Mochizuki, Noriyuki Kaji, Masatoshi Hori, Shunichi Kajioka, Shinsuke Nakayama
    Micro-Coordination of Pacemaker Potentials in the Intestine of the Mouse
    During digestion, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract moves dynamically to mechanically agitate its contents, mix them with secretions/enzymes and gradually propel them toward the tract terminus. The GI tract displays spatio-temporal patterns of motion at the micro-regional level that reflect functional state. Furthermore, GI tract movements can contribute to psychologic state by unconsciously affecting brain nuclei via autonomic nerves and circulating GI hormones/cytokines.1 Indeed, psychologic disorders are frequently associated with bowel dysfunction diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 18 avril 2017
    MarĂ­a InĂ©s Pinto-SĂĄnchez, Natalia Causada-Calo, Premysl Bercik, Alexander C. Ford, Joseph A. Murray, David Armstrong, Carol Semrad, Sonia S. Kupfer, Armin Alaedini, Paul Moayyedi, Daniel A. Leffler, Elena F. VerdĂș, Peter Green
    Safety of Adding Oats to a Gluten-free Diet for Patients with Celiac Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Clinical and Observational Studies
    Patients with celiac disease should maintain a gluten-free diet (GFD), excluding wheat, rye, and barley. Oats might increase the nutritional value of a GFD, but their including is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety of oats as part of a GFD in patients with celiac disease.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 17 avril 2017
    Michal F. Kaminski, Paulina Wieszczy, Maciej Rupinski, Urszula Wojciechowska, Joanna Didkowska, Ewa Kraszewska, Jaroslaw Kobiela, Robert Franczyk, Maria Rupinska, Bartlomiej Kocot, Anna Chaber Chaber-Ciopinska, Jacek Pachlewski, Marcin Polkowski, Jaroslaw Regula
    Increased Rate of Adenoma Detection Associates With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Death
    The quality of endoscopists' colonoscopy performance is measured by adenoma detection rate (ADR). Although ADR is associated inversely with interval colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer death, the effects of an increasing ADR have not been shown. We investigated whether increasing ADRs from individual endoscopists is associated with reduced risks of interval colorectal cancer and subsequent death.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 17 avril 2017
    Jill Koshiol, Yu-Tang Gao, Michael Dean, Patricia Egner, Chirag Nepal, Kristine Jones, Bingsheng Wang, Asif Rashid, Wen Luo, Alison Van Dyke, Catterina Ferreccio, Michael Malasky, Ming-Chang Shen, Bin Zhu, Jesper B. Andersen, Allan Hildesheim, Ann W. Hsing, John Groopman
    Association of Aflatoxin and Gallbladder Cancer
    Aflatoxin, which causes hepatocellular carcinoma, may also cause gallbladder cancer. We investigated whether patients with gallbladder cancer have higher exposure to aflatoxin than patients with gallstones.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 17 avril 2017
    Song-Yi Park, Carol J. Boushey, Lynne R. Wilkens, Christopher A. Haiman, LoĂŻc Le Marchand
    High-quality Diets Associate With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer: Analyses of Diet Quality Indexes in the Multiethnic Cohort
    Healthy eating patterns assessed by diet quality indexes (DQIs) have been related to lower risk of colorectal cancer—mostly among whites. We investigated the associations between 4 DQI scores (the Healthy Eating Index 2010 [HEI-2010], the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 [AHEI-2010], the alternate Mediterranean diet score [aMED], and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score) and colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 08 avril 2017
    Sriram Srivatsa, Mariel C. Paul, Claudia Cardone, Martin Holcmann, Nicole Amberg, Paulina Pathria, Michaela A. Diamanti, Markus Linder, Gerald Timelthaler, Hans P. Dienes, Lukas Kenner, Fritz Wrba, Gerald W. Prager, Stefan Rose-John, Robert Eferl, Giuseppina Liguori, Gerardo Botti, Erika Martinelli, Florian R. Greten, Fortunato Ciardiello, Maria Sibilia
    EGFR in Tumor-associated Myeloid Cells Promotes Development of Colorectal Cancer in Mice and Associates With Outcomes of Patients
    Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are the first-line therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal tumors without RAS mutations. However, EGFR inhibitors are ineffective in these patients, and tumor level of EGFR does not associate with response to therapy. We screened human colorectal tumors for EGFR-positive myeloid cells and investigated their association with patient outcome. We also performed studies in mice to evaluate how EGFR expression in tumor cells and myeloid cells contributes to development of colitis-associated cancer and ApcMin-dependent intestinal tumorigenesis.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 08 avril 2017
    Cecilia Egoavil, Miriam Juårez, Carla Guarinos, María Rodríguez-Soler, Eva Hernåndez-Illån, Cristina Alenda, Artemio Payå, Adela Castillejo, Anna Serradesanferm, Luis Bujanda, Fernando Fernåndez-Bañares, Joaquín Cubiella, Luisa de-Castro, Ana Guerra, Elena Aguirre, Alberto Herreros-de-Tejada, Xavier Bessa, Maite Herråiz, José-Carlos Marín-Gabriel, Judith Balmaña, Virginia Piñol, Francisco Rodríguez Moranta, David Nicolås-Pérez, Miriam Cuatrecasas, Francesc Balaguer, Antoni Castells, José-Luis Soto, Pedro Zapater, Rodrigo Jover
    Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Patients With Multiple Serrated Polyps and Their First-Degree Relatives
    We investigated whether patients with multiple serrated polyps, but not meeting the World Health Organization criteria for serrated polyposis syndrome, and their relatives have similar risks for colorectal cancer (CRC) as those diagnosed with serrated polyposis.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 08 avril 2017
    Rivkah Gonsky, Phillip Fleshner, Richard L. Deem, Eva Biener-Ramanujan, Dalin Li, Alka A. Potdar, Janine Bilsborough, Shaohong Yang, Dermot P.B. McGovern, Stephan R. Targan
    Association of Ribonuclease T2 Gene Polymorphisms With Decreased Expression and Clinical Characteristics of Severity in Crohn’s Disease
    Variants in the tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 15 gene (TNFSF15, also called TL1A) have been associated with risk for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). TL1A affects expression of multiple cytokines to promote mucosal inflammation. Little is known about the TL1A-response pathways that regulate cytokine expression. We investigated T-cell gene expression patterns to determine the mechanisms by which TL1A regulates cytokine production, and whether these associate with outcomes of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD).

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 08 avril 2017
    Allan B. Dietz, Eric J. Dozois, Joel G. Fletcher, Greg W. Butler, Darcie Radel, Amy L. Lightner, Maneesh Dave, Jessica Friton, Asha Nair, Emily T. Camilleri, Amel Dudakovic, Andre J. van Wijnen, William A. Faubion
    Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Applied in a Bioabsorbable Matrix, for Treatment of Perianal Fistulas in Patients With Crohn's Disease’
    In patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), perianal fistulas frequently recur, causing substantial morbidity. We performed a 12 patient, 6 month phase I trial to determine whether autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), applied in a bioabsorbable matrix, can heal the fistula. Fistula repair was not associated with any serious adverse events related to MSCs or plug placement. At 6 months, 10/12 patients (83%) had complete clinical healing and radiographic markers of response. We found placement of MSC-coated matrix fistula plugs in 12 patients with chronic perianal fistulas to be safe and lead to clinical healing and radiographic response in 10 patients.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 07 avril 2017
    Emanuel E. Canfora, Christina M. van der Beek, Gerben D.A. Hermes, Gijs H. Goossens, Johan W.E. Jocken, Jens J. Holst, Hans M. van Eijk, Koen Venema, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G. Zoetendal, Cornelis H.C. Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ellen E. Blaak
    Supplementation of Diet With Galacto-oligosaccharides Increases Bifidobacteria, but Not Insulin Sensitivity, in Obese Prediabetic Individuals
    The gut microbiota affects host lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fermentation end products, in particular the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, are believed to be involved in these processes. We investigated the long-term effects of supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fiber, on the composition of the human gut microbiota and human metabolism.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 05 avril 2017
    Lin Cui, Kenji Nakano, Sumalee Obchoei, Kiyoko Setoguchi, Masaki Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Satoshi Obika, Kazuaki Shimada, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka
    Small Nucleolar Noncoding RNA SNORA23, Up-Regulated in Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Regulates Expression of Spectrin Repeat-Containing Nuclear Envelope 2 to Promote Growth and Metastasis of Xenograft Tumors in Mice
    Small nucleolar noncoding RNAs (snoRNAs) regulate function of ribosomes, and specific snoRNAs are dysregulated in some cancer cells. We investigated dysregulation of snoRNAs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 05 avril 2017
    Bruce E. Sands, Jingjing Chen, Brian G. Feagan, Mark Penney, William A. Rees, Silvio Danese, Peter D.R. Higgins, Paul Newbold, Raffaella Faggioni, Kaushik Patra, Jing Li, Paul Klekotka, Chris Morehouse, Erik Pulkstenis, Jörn Drappa, René van der Merwe, Robert A. Gasser
    Efficacy and Safety of MEDI2070, an Antibody Against Interleukin 23, Patients With Moderate to Severe Crohn's Disease: a Phase 2a Study
    MEDI2070 is a human monoclonal antibody that selectively inhibits interleukin 23 (IL23), a cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). We analyzed its safety and efficacy in treatment of CD in a phase 2a study.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 05 avril 2017
    Yuan-Hung Lo, Taeko K. Noah, Min-Shan Chen, Winnie Zou, Ester Borras, Eduardo Vilar, Noah F. Shroyer
    SPDEF Induces Quiescence of Colorectal Cancer Cells by Changing the Transcriptional Targets of ÎČ-catenin
    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway activates the transcriptional activity of ÎČ-catenin. This pathway is often activated in colorectal cancer cells, but strategies to block it in tumors have not been effective. The SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) suppresses formation of colon tumors by unclear mechanisms. We investigated these mechanisms and the effects of SPDEF on ÎČ-catenin activity in mouse models of colorectal cancer (CRC), CRC cell lines, and mouse and human normal and cancer colonoids.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 05 avril 2017
    Ira M. Jacobson, Eric Lawitz, Edward J. Gane, Bernard E. Willems, Peter J. Ruane, Ronald G. Nahass, Sergio M. Borgia, Stephen D. Shafran, Kimberly A. Workowski, Brian Pearlman, Robert H. Hyland, Luisa M. Stamm, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Yanni Zhu, G. Mani Subramanian, Diana M. Brainard, John G. McHutchison, Norbert BrÀu, Thomas Berg, Kosh Agarwal, Bal Raj Bhandari, Mitchell Davis, Jordan J. Feld, Gregory J. Dore, Catherine A.M. Stedman, Alexander J. Thompson, Tarik Asselah, Stuart K. Roberts, Graham R. Foster
    Efficacy of 8 Weeks of Sofosbuvir, Velpatasvir, and Voxilaprevir in Patients With Chronic HCV Infection: 2 Phase 3 Randomized Trials
    Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) after 12 weeks of treatment with the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir combined with the NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir. We assessed the efficacy of 8 weeks of treatment with sofosbuvir and velpatasvir plus the pangenotypic NS3/4A protease inhibitor voxilaprevir (sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir).

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 05 avril 2017
    Takatsugu Ishimoto, Keisuke Miyake, Tannistha Nandi, Masakazu Yashiro, Nobuyuki Onishi, Kie Kyon Huang, Lin Suling Joyce, Ramnarayanan Kalpana, Su Ting Tay, Yuka Suzuki, Byoung Chul Cho, Daisuke Kuroda, Kota Arima, Daisuke Izumi, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yoshifumi Baba, Eiji Oki, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideyuki Saya, Kosei Hirakawa, Hideo Baba, Patrick Tan
    Activation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Signaling in Gastric Cancer-associated Fibroblasts Increases Their Motility, via Expression of Rhomboid 5 Homolog 2, and Ability to Induce Invasiveness of Gastric Cancer Cells
    Fibroblasts that interact with cancer cells are called cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which promote progression of different tumor types. We investigated the characteristics and functions of CAFs in diffuse-type gastric cancers (DGCs) by analyzing features of their genome and gene expression patterns.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 30 mars 2017
    Chang-Kyung Kim, Ping He, Agnieszka B. Bialkowska, Vincent W. Yang
    SP and KLF Transcription Factors in Digestive Physiology and Diseases
    Specificity proteins (SPs) and KrĂŒppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to the family of transcription factors that contain conserved zinc finger domains involved in binding to target DNA sequences. Many of these proteins are expressed in different tissues and have distinct tissue-specific activities and functions. Studies have shown that SPs and KLFs regulate not only physiological processes such as growth, development, differentiation, proliferation, and embryogenesis, but pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 29 mars 2017
    Antonio Carroccio, Alberto D’Alcamo, Giuseppe Iacono, Maurizio Soresi, Rosario Iacobucci, Andrea Arini, Girolamo Geraci, Francesca Fayer, Francesca Cavataio, Francesco La Blasca, Ada M. Florena, Pasquale Mansueto
    Persistence of Nonceliac Wheat Sensitivity, Based on Long-term Follow-up
    We investigated how many patients with a diagnosis of nonceliac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) still experienced wheat sensitivity after a median follow-up time of 99 months. We collected data from 200 participants from a previous study of NCWS, performed between July and December 2016 in Italy; 148 of these individuals were still on a strict wheat-free diet. In total, 175 patients (88%) improved (had fewer symptoms) after a diagnosis of NCWS; 145 of 148 patients who adhered strictly to a gluten-free diet (98%) had reduced symptoms, compared with 30 of 52 patients who did not adhere to a gluten-free diet (58%) (P < .0001).

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 29 mars 2017
    Xi Liu, Min Zhang, Songmin Ying, Chong Zhang, Runhua Lin, Jiaxuan Zheng, Guohong Zhang, Dongping Tian, Yi Guo, Caiwen Du, Yuping Chen, Shaobin Chen, Xue Su, Juan Ji, Wanting Deng, Xiang Li, Shiyue Qiu, Ruijing Yan, Zexin Xu, Yuan Wang, Yuanning Guo, Jiancheng Cui, Shanshan Zhuang, Huan Yu, Qi Zheng, Moshe Marom, Sitong Sheng, Guoqiang Zhang, Songnian Hu, Ruiqiang Li, Min Su
    Genetic Alterations in Esophageal Tissues From Squamous Dysplasia to Carcinoma
    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common subtype of esophageal cancer. Little is known about the genetic changes that occur in esophageal cells during the development of ESCC. We performed next-generation sequence analyses of esophageal nontumor, intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN), and ESCC tissues from the same patients to track genetic changes during tumor development.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 28 mars 2017
    Weilong Zhang, Huan He, Mengya Zang, Qifeng Wu, Hong Zhao, Ling-ling Lu, Peiqing Ma, Hongwei Zheng, Nengjin Wang, Ying Zhang, Siyuan He, Xiaoyan Chen, Zhiyuan Wu, Xiaoyue Wang, Jianqiang Cai, Zhihua Liu, Zongtang Sun, Yi-xin Zeng, Chunfeng Qu, Yuchen Jiao
    Genetic Features of Aflatoxin-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinomas
    Dietary exposure to aflatoxin is an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about the genomic features and mutations of aflatoxin-associated HCCs compared with HCCs not associated with aflatoxin exposure. We investigated the genetic features of aflatoxin-associated HCC that can be used to differentiate them from HCCs not associated with this carcinogen.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 28 mars 2017
    Wafa Khamri, Robin D. Abeles, Tie Zheng Hou, Amy E. Anderson, Ahmed El-Masry, Evangelos Triantafyllou, Christine Bernsmeier, Fin S. Larsen, Arjuna Singanayagam, Nobuaki Kudo, Lucia A. Possamai, Fanny Lebosse, Georg Auzinger, William Bernal, Christopher Willars, Christopher J. Weston, Giovanna Lombardi, Julia Wendon, Mark Thursz, Charalambos G. Antoniades
    Increased Expression of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte−Associated Protein 4 by T Cells, Induced by B7 in Sera, Reduces Adaptive Immunity in Patients With Acute Liver Failure
    Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) have defects in innate immune responses to microbes (immune paresis) and are susceptible to sepsis. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte−associated protein 4 (CTLA4), which interacts with the membrane receptor B7 (also called CD80 and CD86), is a negative regulator of T-cell activation. We collected T cells from patients with ALF and investigated whether inhibitory signals down-regulate adaptive immune responses in patients with ALF.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 28 mars 2017
    Andrew King, Diarmaid D. Houlihan, Dean Kavanagh, Debashis Haldar, Nguyet Luu, Andrew Owen, Shankar Suresh, Nwe Ni Than, Gary Reynolds, Jasmine Penny, Henry Sumption, Prakash Ramachandran, Neil C. Henderson, Neena Kalia, Jon Frampton, David H. Adams, Philip N. Newsome
    Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Prevents Egress of Hematopoietic Stem Cells From Liver to Reduce Fibrosis
    There is growing interest in the use of bone marrow cells to treat liver fibrosis, however, little is known about their antifibrotic efficacy or the identity of their effector cell(s). Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) mediates egress of immune cells from the lymphoid organs into the lymphatic vessels; we investigated its role in the response of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to liver fibrosis in mice.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 27 mars 2017
    Ying Zhang, Karin Seid, Florian Obermayr, Lothar Just, Peter H. Neckel
    Activation of Wnt Signaling Increases Numbers of Enteric Neurons Derived From Neonatal Mouse and Human Progenitor Cells
    Neural stem and progenitor cells from the enteric nervous system (ENS) might serve as a source of cells for treatment of neurogastrointestinal disorders. Before we can use these cells, we must increase our understanding of the signaling mechanisms that regulate proliferation and differentiation. We systematically evaluated the effects of canonical Wnt signaling on proliferation and differentiation of cultured ENS progenitor cells from neonatal mice and humans.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 22 mars 2017
    Mircea T. Chiriac, Barbara Buchen, Alexandra Wandersee, Gheorghe Hundorfean, Claudia GĂŒnther, Yvonne Bourjau, Sean E. Doyle, Benjamin Frey, Arif B. Ekici, Christian BĂŒttner, Benno Weigmann, Raja Atreya, Stefan Wirtz, Christoph Becker, JĂŒrgen Siebler, Markus F. Neurath
    Activation of Epithelial Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 by Interleukin 28 Controls Mucosal Healing in Mice With Colitis and Is Increased in Mucosa of Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    We investigated the roles of interleukin 28A (also called IL28A or interferon λ2) in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) activation, studying its effects in mouse models of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and intestinal mucosal healing.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 22 mars 2017
    Frank Pui-Ling Lai, Sin-Ting Lau, John Kwong-Leong Wong, Hongsheng Gui, Reeson Xu Wang, Tingwen Zhou, Wing Hon Lai, Hung-Fat Tse, Paul Kwong-Hang Tam, Maria-Mercedes Garcia-Barcelo, Elly Sau-Wai Ngan
    Correction of Hirschsprung-associated Mutations in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, via CRISPR/Cas9, Restores Neural Crest Cell Function
    Hirschsprung disease is caused by failure of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) to fully colonize the bowel, leading to bowel obstruction and megacolon. Heterozygous mutations in the coding region of the RET gene cause a severe form of Hirschsprung disease (total colonic aganglionosis). However, 80% of HSCR patients have short-segment Hirschsprung disease (S-HSCR), which has not been associated with genetic factors. We sought to identify mutations associated S-HSCR, and used the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system to determine how mutations affect ENCC function.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 16 mars 2017
    Shu-Heng Jiang, Jun Li, Fang-Yuan Dong, Jian-Yu Yang, De-Jun Liu, Xiao-Mei Yang, Ya-Hui Wang, Min-Wei Yang, Xue-Liang Fu, Xiao-Xin Zhang, Qing Li, Xiu-Feng Pang, Yan-Miao Huo, Jiao Li, Jun-Feng Zhang, Ho-Young Lee, Su-Jae Lee, Wen-Xin Qin, Jian-Ren Gu, Yong-Wei Sun, Zhi-Gang Zhang
    Increased Serotonin Signaling Contributes to the Warburg Effect in Pancreatic Tumor Cells under Metabolic Stress and Promotes Growth of Pancreatic Tumors in Mice
    Desmoplasia and poor vascularity cause severe metabolic stress in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator with neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions that contributes to tumorigenesis. We investigated the role of 5-HT signaling in the growth of pancreatic tumors.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 10 mars 2017
    David Saadoun, Stanislas Pol, Yasmina Ferfar, Laurent Alric, Christophe Hezode, Si Nafa Si Ahmed, Luc de Saint Martin, Cloé Comarmond, Anne Sophie Bouyer, Lucile Musset, Thierry Poynard, Matthieu Resche Rigon, Patrice Cacoub
    Efficacy and Safety of Sofosbuvir Plus Daclatasvir for Treatment of HCV-Associated Cryoglobulinemia Vasculitis
    Circulating mixed cryoglobulins are detected in 40%–60% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and overt cryoglobulinemia vasculitis (CryoVas) develops in approximately 15% of patients. Remission of vasculitis has been associated with viral clearance, but few studies have reported the effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral drugs in these patients. We performed an open-label, prospective, multicenter study of the effectiveness and tolerance of an all-oral, interferon- and ribavirin-free regimen of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir in patients with HCV-associated CryoVas.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 09 mars 2017
    Patrik Nasr, Mikael F. Forsgren, Simone Ignatova, Nils Dahlström, Gunnar Cedersund, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Bengt Norén, Mattias Ekstedt, Peter Lundberg, Stergios Kechagias
    Using a 3% Proton Density Fat Fraction as a Cut-Off Value Increases Sensitivity of Detection of Hepatic Steatosis, Based on Results From Histopathology Analysis
    It is possible to estimate hepatic triglyceride content by calculating the proton density fat fraction (PDFF), using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), instead of collecting and analyzing liver biopsy specimens to detect steatosis. However, the current PDFF cut-off value (5%) used to define steatosis by magnetic resonance was derived from studies that did not use histopathology as the reference standard. We performed a prospective study to determine the accuracy of 1H-MRS PDFF in the measurement of steatosis using histopathology analysis as the standard.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 09 mars 2017
    Eva A. Ebbing, Anne Steins, Evelyn Fessler, Phylicia Stathi, Willem Joost Lesterhuis, Kausilia K. Krishnadath, Louis Vermeulen, Jan Paul Medema, Maarten F. Bijlsma, Hanneke W.M. van Laarhoven
    Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells and Xenograft Tumors Exposed to Erb-b2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 and 3 Inhibitors Activate Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling, Which Induces Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition
    Drugs that inhibit the erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2 or HER2) are the standard treatment of patients with different types of cancer, including HER2-overexpressing gastroesophageal tumors. Unfortunately, cancer cells become resistant to these drugs, so overall these drugs provide little benefit to patients with these tumors. We investigated mechanisms that mediate resistance of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells and patient-derived xenograft tumors to ERBB inhibitors.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 08 mars 2017
    Bin Chen, Wei Wei, Li Ma, Bin Yang, Ryan M. Gill, Mei-Sze Chua, Atul J. Butte, Samuel So
    Computational Discovery of Niclosamide Ethanolamine, a Repurposed Drug Candidate That Reduces Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells In Vitro and in Mice by Inhibiting Cell Division Cycle 37 Signaling
    Drug repositioning offers a shorter approval process than new drug development. We therefore searched large public datasets of drug-induced gene expression signatures to identify agents that might be effective against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 07 mars 2017
    Marina Serper, Tamar H. Taddei, Rajni Mehta, Kathryn D’Addeo, Feng Dai, Ayse Aytaman, Michelle Baytarian, Rena Fox, Kristel Hunt, David S. Goldberg, Adriana Valderrama, David E. Kaplan, VOCAL Study Group
    Association of Provider Specialty and Multidisciplinary Care With Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment and Mortality
    Little is known about provider and health system factors that affect receipt of active therapy and outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated patient, provider, and health system factors associated with receipt of active HCC therapy and overall survival.

    Date de mise en ligne : Dimanche 05 mars 2017
    Tobias J. WeismĂŒller, Palak J. Trivedi, Annika Bergquist, Mohamad Imam, Henrike Lenzen, Cyriel Y. Ponsioen, Kristian Holm, Daniel Gotthardt, Martti A. FĂ€rkkilĂ€, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Douglas Thorburn, Rinse K. Weersma, Johan Fevery, Tobias Mueller, Olivier ChazouillĂšres, Kornelius Schulze, Konstantinos N. Lazaridis, Sven Almer, Stephen P. Pereira, Cynthia Levy, Andrew Mason, Sigrid Naess, Christopher L. Bowlus, Annarosa Floreani, Emina Halilbasic, Kidist K. Yimam, Piotr Milkiewicz, Ulrich Beuers, Dep K. Huynh, Albert Pares, Christine N. Manser, George N. Dalekos, Bertus Eksteen, Pietro Invernizzi, Christoph P. Berg, Gabi I. Kirchner, Christoph Sarrazin, Vincent Zimmer, Luca Fabris, Felix Braun, Marco Marzioni, Brian D. Juran, Karouk Said, Christian Rupp, Kalle Jokelainen, Maria Benito de Valle, Francesca Saffioti, Angela Cheung, Michael Trauner, Christoph Schramm, Roger W. Chapman, Tom H. Karlsen, Erik Schrumpf, Christian P. Strassburg, Michael P. Manns, Keith D. Lindor, Gideon M. Hirschfield, Bettina E. Hansen, Kirsten M. Boberg, International PSC Study Group
    Patient Age, Sex, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Phenotype Associate With Course of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an orphan hepatobiliary disorder associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to estimate the risk of disease progression based on distinct clinical phenotypes in a large international cohort of patients with PSC.

    Date de mise en ligne : Dimanche 05 mars 2017
    Cloé Comarmond, MarlÚne Garrido, Stanislas Pol, Anne-Claire Desbois, Myrto Costopoulos, Magali Le Garff-Tavernier, Si Nafa Si Ahmed, Laurent Alric, HélÚne Fontaine, Bertrand Bellier, Anna Maciejewski, Michelle Rosenzwajg, David Klatzmann, Lucile Musset, Thierry Poynard, Patrice Cacoub, David Saadoun
    Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy Restores Immune Tolerance to Patients With Hepatitis C Virus–Induced Cryoglobulinemia Vasculitis
    Interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies are effective in patients with hepatitis C virus–induced cryoglobulinemia vasculitis (HCV-CV). We analyzed blood samples from patients with HCV-CV before and after DAA therapy to determine mechanisms of these drugs and their effects on cellular immunity.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 04 mars 2017
    David R. Mitchell, Mohammad H. Derakhshan, Angela A. Wirz, Stuart A. Ballantyne, Kenneth E.L. McColl
    Abdominal Compression by Waist Belt Aggravates Gastroesophageal Reflux, Primarily by Impairing Esophageal Clearance
    Central obesity promotes gastroesophageal reflux, which may be related to increased intra-abdominal pressure. We investigated the effect of increasing abdominal pressure by waist belt on reflux in patients with reflux disease.

    Date de mise en ligne : Dimanche 26 février 2017
    Sofia M.E. Weiler, Federico Pinna, Thomas Wolf, Teresa Lutz, Aman Geldiyev, Carsten Sticht, Maria Knaub, Stefan Thomann, Michaela Bissinger, Shan Wan, Stephanie Rössler, Diana Becker, Norbert Gretz, Hauke Lang, Frank Bergmann, Vladimir Ustiyan, Tatiana V. Kalin, Stephan Singer, Ju-Seog Lee, Jens U. Marquardt, Peter Schirmacher, Vladimir V. Kalinichenko, Kai Breuhahn
    Induction of Chromosome Instability by Activation of Yes-Associated Protein and Forkhead Box M1 in Liver Cancer
    Many different types of cancer cells have chromosome instability. The hippo pathway leads to phosphorylation of the transcriptional activator yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1, YAP), which regulates proliferation and has been associated with the development of liver cancer. We investigated the effects of hippo signaling via YAP on chromosome stability and hepatocarcinogenesis in humans and mice.

    Date de mise en ligne : Dimanche 26 février 2017
    Raaj S. Mehta, Mingyang Song, Reiko Nishihara, David A. Drew, Kana Wu, Zhi Rong Qian, Teresa T. Fung, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Yohei Masugi, Annacarolina da Silva, Yan Shi, Wanwan Li, Mancang Gu, Walter C. Willett, Charles S. Fuchs, Edward L. Giovannucci, Shuji Ogino, Andrew T. Chan
    Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: Analysis by Tumor Location and Molecular Subtypes
    Western and prudent dietary patterns have been associated with higher and lower risks of colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. However, little is known about the associations between dietary patterns and specific anatomic subsites or molecular subtypes of CRC.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 25 février 2017
    Meng Zhu, Caiwang Yan, Chuanli Ren, Xiaodan Huang, Xun Zhu, Haiyong Gu, Meilin Wang, Shouyu Wang, Yong Gao, Yong Ji, Xiaoping Miao, Ming Yang, Jinfei Chen, Jiangbo Du, Tongtong Huang, Yue Jiang, Juncheng Dai, Hongxia Ma, Jianwei Zhou, Zhaoming Wang, Zhibin Hu, Guozhong Ji, Zhengdong Zhang, Hongbing Shen, Yongyong Shi, Guangfu Jin
    Exome Array Analysis Identifies Variants in SPOCD1 and BTN3A2 That Affect Risk for Gastric Cancer
    Several genetic variants have been associated with gastric cancer risk, although these account for only a fraction of cases of gastric cancer. We aimed to identify low-frequency and other genetic variants that determine gastric cancer susceptibility.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 25 février 2017
    Chun-Pyo Hong, Areum Park, Bo-Gie Yang, Chang Ho Yun, Min-Jung Kwak, Gil-Woo Lee, Jung-Hwan Kim, Min Seong Jang, Eun-Jung Lee, Eun-Ji Jeun, Gihoon You, Kwang Soon Kim, Youngwoo Choi, Ji-Hwan Park, Daehee Hwang, Sin-Hyeog Im, Jihyun F. Kim, Yoon-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Seoh, Charles D. Surh, You-Me Kim, Myoung Ho Jang
    Gut-Specific Delivery of T-Helper 17 Cells Reduces Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Mice
    Obesity and metabolic syndrome have been associated with alterations to the intestinal microbiota. However, few studies examined the effects of obesity on the intestinal immune system. We investigated changes in subsets of intestinal CD4+ T-helper (TH) cells with obesity and the effects of gut-tropic TH17 cells in mice on a high-fat diet (HFD).

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 24 février 2017
    Sari Lieberman, Tom Walsh, Menachem Schechter, Tomer Adar, Eran Goldin, Rachel Beeri, Nitzan Sharon, Hagit Baris, Liat Ben Avi, Elizabeth Half, Israela Lerer, Brian H. Shirts, Colin C. Pritchard, Ian Tomlinson, Mary-Claire King, Ephrat Levy-Lahad, Tamar Peretz, Yael Goldberg
    Features of Patients With Hereditary Mixed Polyposis Syndrome Caused by Duplication of GREM1 and Implications for Screening and Surveillance
    Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome is a rare colon cancer predisposition syndrome caused by a duplication of a noncoding sequence near the gremlin 1, DAN family BMP antagonist gene (GREM1) originally described in Ashkenazi Jews. Few families with GREM1 duplications have been described, so there are many questions about detection and management. We report 4 extended families with the duplication near GREM1 previously found in Ashkenazi Jews; 3 families were identified at cancer genetic clinics in Israel and 1 family was identified in a cohort of patients with familial colorectal cancer.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 24 février 2017
    Zhang-Hui Chen, Yan P. Yu, Junyan Tao, Silvia Liu, George Tseng, Michael Nalesnik, Ronald Hamilton, Rohit Bhargava, Joel B. Nelson, Arjun Pennathur, Satdarshan P. Monga, James D. Luketich, George K. Michalopoulos, Jian-Hua Luo
    MAN2A1–FER Fusion Gene Is Expressed by Human Liver and Other Tumor Types and Has Oncogenic Activity in Mice
    Human tumors and liver cancer cell lines express the product of a fusion between the first 13 exons in the mannosidase α class 2A member 1 gene (MAN2A1) and the last 6 exons in the FER tyrosine kinase gene (FER), called MAN2A1−FER. We investigated whether MAN2A1−FER is expressed by human liver tumors and its role in liver carcinogenesis.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 23 février 2017
    Daniel MĂžnsted Shabanzadeh, Lars Tue SĂžrensen, Torben JĂžrgensen
    Association Between Screen-Detected Gallstone Disease and Cancer in a Cohort Study
    Knowledge of temporal associations between screen-detected gallstone disease and specific cancers is limited. The objective of this study was to determine if screen-detected gallstones or cholecystectomy are associated with occurrence of gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal cancers.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 23 février 2017
    Aynur Unalp-Arida, Constance E. Ruhl, Rok Seon Choung, Tricia L. Brantner, Joseph A. Murray
    Lower Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Gluten-Related Disorders in Persons Living in Southern vs Northern Latitudes of the United States
    The association between prevalence of celiac disease and geographic region is incompletely understood, but the occurrence of several autoimmune disorders has been found to vary along a North−South gradient. We examined geographic, demographic, and clinical factors associated with prevalence of celiac disease and gluten-free diet in the United States.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 17 février 2017
    Joseph C. Anderson, John A. Baron, Dennis J. Ahnen, Elizabeth L. Barry, Roberd M. Bostick, Carol A. Burke, Robert S. Bresalier, Timothy R. Church, Bernard F. Cole, Marcia Cruz-Correa, Adam S. Kim, Leila A. Mott, Robert S. Sandler, Douglas J. Robertson
    Factors Associated With Shorter Colonoscopy Surveillance Intervals for Patients With Low-Risk Colorectal Adenomas and Effects on Outcome
    Endoscopists do not routinely follow guidelines to survey individuals with low-risk adenomas (LRAs; 1–2 small tubular adenomas, < 1 cm) every 5–10 years for colorectal cancer; many recommend shorter surveillance intervals for these individuals. We aimed to identify the reasons that endoscopists recommend shorter surveillance intervals for some individuals with LRAs and determine whether timing affects outcomes at follow-up examinations.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 13 février 2017
    Xinxin Cheng, Lixuan Wei, Xudong Huang, Jian Zheng, Mingming Shao, Ting Feng, Jun Li, Yaling Han, Wenle Tan, Wen Tan, Dongxin Lin, Chen Wu
    Solute Carrier Family 39 Member 6 Gene Promotes Aggressiveness of Esophageal Carcinoma Cells by Increasing Intracellular Levels of Zinc, Activating Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signaling, and Up-regulating Genes That Regulate Metastasis
    A common variant in the solute carrier family 39 member 6 gene (SLC39A6) has been associated with survival times of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We investigated the function of SLC39A6 and ways in which this variant affects tumor progression by studying ESCC samples and cell lines.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 13 février 2017
    Kyle Staller, Mary K. Townsend, Hamed Khalili, Raaj Mehta, Francine Grodstein, William E. Whitehead, Catherine A. Matthews, Braden Kuo, Andrew T. Chan
    Menopausal Hormone Therapy Is Associated With Increased Risk of Fecal Incontinence in Women After Menopause
    Low estrogen levels can contribute to development of fecal incontinence (FI) in women after menopause by altering neuromuscular continence mechanisms. However, studies have produced conflicting results on the association between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and risk of FI.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 10 février 2017
    Jeffrey S. Hyams, Marla C. Dubinsky, Robert N. Baldassano, Richard B. Colletti, Salvatore Cucchiara, Johanna Escher, William Faubion, John Fell, Benjamin D. Gold, Anne Griffiths, Sibylle Koletzko, Subra Kugathasan, James Markowitz, Frank M. Ruemmele, Gigi Veereman, Harland Winter, Nicholas Masel, Chu Ri Shin, Kezhen L. Tang, Meena Thayu
    Infliximab Is Not Associated With Increased Risk of Malignancy or Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in Pediatric Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Immunosuppressive therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in pediatric patients is thought to increase the risk of malignancy and lymphoproliferative disorders, including hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). We compared unadjusted incidence rates of malignancy and HLH in pediatric patients with IBD exposed to infliximab (IFX) with patients not exposed to biologics and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 10 février 2017
    Nicole T. Shen, Anna Maw, Lyubov L. Tmanova, Alejandro Pino, Kayley Ancy, Carl V. Crawford, Matthew S. Simon, Arthur T. Evans
    Timely Use of Probiotics in Hospitalized Adults Prevents Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review With Meta-Regression Analysis
    Systematic reviews have provided evidence for the efficacy of probiotics in preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but guidelines do not recommend probiotic use for prevention of CDI. We performed an updated systematic review to help guide clinical practice.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 04 février 2015
    David T. Rubin
    The Rationale and Growth of Advanced Training in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 17 novembre 2014
    Steven F. Moss
    The Great Ulcer War: How It All Happened
    All gastroenterologists, most physicians, and many members of the general public are familiar with the discovery of gastric spiral bacteria in Western Australia in the early 1980s and the struggle to convince us that these bacteria, which we now call Helicobacter pylori, were a significant clinical issue. The eventual acceptance of Marshall and Warrren’s ideas resulted in their receiving the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 2005. In contrast with the success story of triumph over adversity of these Antipodean pioneers that has been well-disseminated in the medical and lay media, little has been written about why the United States was particularly slow to accept the infectious theory of peptic ulcers.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 19 novembre 2012
    Continuing Medical Education Answers: January 2013

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 15 octobre 2012
    Continuing Medical Education Answers: December 2012

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 19 septembre 2012
    Ilaria Russo, Alessandro Luciani, Edoardo Troncone, Carolina Ciacci
    WITHDRAWN: The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Activates Tissue Transglutaminase and Intestinal Inflammation by Reducing Levels of IÎșBα
    This article has been withdrawn at the request of the authors. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause.The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 22 août 2012
    Continuing Medical Education Answers: October 2012

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    Information for Authors and Readers
    Gastroenterology is the premiere journal in the field of gastrointestinal disease and is led by an internationally renowned board of editors. As the official journal of the AGA Institute, Gastroenterology delivers up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical gastroenterology and hepatology. Regular features include research and perspectives by leading authorities, reports on the latest technologies for diagnosing and treating digestive diseases, images illustrating important clinical findings, reviews of scholarly media, medical news, meeting summaries, video abstracts, and monthly podcasts.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    Elsewhere in The AGA Journals

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    Table of Contents

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    Editorial Board

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    Cover 1

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    Yoshiaki Ito
    We appreciate the comments by Hayakawa and Wang on our original study.1 They raise important issues concerning the location of stem cells as well as the origin of metaplasia in the stomach.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    Chia-Fen Tsai, Mu-Hong Chen, Yen-Po Wang, Ching-Liang Lu
    We thank Dr Khan and Dr Assaraf for their responses to our publication.1