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Mise jour le : 25-07-2017

Les derniers abstracts de la revue Journal of Hepatology :

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 21 juillet 2017
    Tsuyoshi Suda, Tetsuro Shimakami, Takayoshi Shirasaki, Tatsuya Yamashita, Eishiro Mizukoshi, Masao Honda, Shuichi Kaneko
    Reactivation of Hepatitis B Virus from an isolated Anti-HBc positive patient after eradication of Hepatitis C Virus with Direct-acting Antiviral Agents
    Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), called “interferon-free treatment,” for hepatitis C virus (HCV) have greatly improved our ability to eradicate HCV from infected livers.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 21 juillet 2017
    Sunyoung Lee, Seong Hyun Kim
    Reply to: “How to Better Predict Microvascular Invasion and Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma”
    We thank Xu et al. for their interest in our recent study about preoperative gadoxetic acid–enhanced MRI for predicting microvascular invasion in patients with single hepatocellular carcinoma [1], and we appreciate their comments.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 20 juillet 2017
    Xin-Fei Xu, Jiong-Jie Yu, Hao Xing, Feng Shen, Tian Yang
    How to Better Predict Microvascular Invasion and Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    We read with great interest the article by Dr. Lee et al. [1]. This retrospective study showed that three characteristic features in Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging were independent predictors for microvascular invasion (MVI) of single hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): arterial peritumoral enhancement, non-smooth tumor margin, and peritumoral hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase, which can be used as a biomarker for predicting MVI. In addition, this study also revealed that a combination of any two aforementioned imaging features was associated with early postoperative recurrence of HCC.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 20 juillet 2017
    Thomas Berg, Karl-Georg Simon, Stefan Mauss, Eckart Schott, Renate Heyne, Dietmar M. Klass, Christoph Eisenbach, Tania Mara Welzel, Reinhart Zachoval, Gisela Felten, Julian Schulze-zur-Wiesch, Markus Cornberg, Marjoleine L. Op den Brouw, Belinda Jump, Hans Reiser, Lothar Gallo, Tobias Warger, Jörg Petersen, FINITE CHB study investigators [First investigation in stopping TDF treatment after long-term virological suppression in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B]
    Long-term response after stopping tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in non-cirrhotic HBeAg-negative patients – FINITE study
    There is currently no virological cure for chronic hepatitis B but successful nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy can suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication and, in some cases, result in HBsAg loss. Stopping NA therapy often leads to viral relapse and therefore life-long therapy is usually required. This study investigated the potential to discontinue tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) therapy in HBeAg-negative patients.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 20 juillet 2017
    Neil Rajoriya, Christophe Combet, Fabien Zoulim, Harry L.A. Janssen
    How viral genetic variants and genotypes influence disease and treatment outcome of chronic hepatitis B. Time for an individualized approach?
    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global problem. Several HBV (sub)genotypes exist with different biology and geographical preponderances. While the future aim of HBV treatment remains virus eradication, current strategies of treatment aim to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of liver disease. Current strategies also involve identification of patients for treatment – those at risk of progressive liver disease. Identification of HBV genotype, HBV mutants and other predictive factors allow for tailored treatments, and also risk-surveillance pathways such as for hepatocellular cancer screening.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 19 juillet 2017
    Harry R. Dalton, Jeroen J.J. van Eijk, Pascal Cintas, Richie G. Madden, Catherine Jones, Glynn W. Webb, Benjamin Norton, Julie Pique, Suzanne Lutgens, Nikki Devooght-Johnson, Kathy Woolson, John Baker, Maria Saunders, Liz Househam, James Griffiths, Florence Abravanel, Jacques Izopet, Nassim Kamar, Nens van Alfen, Baziel G.M. van Engelen, Jeremy G. Hunter, Annemiek A. van der Eijk, Richard P. Bendall, Brendan N. Mclean, Bart C. Jacobs
    Hepatitis E Virus Infection and Acute Non-Traumatic Neurological Injury: A Prospective Multicentre Study
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in many developed countries. In such settings, infection is mostly caused by HEV genotypes 3 and 4 (gt3 and 4) and is considered to be largely zoonotic with pigs as the usual source. Locally-acquired HEV infection is mostly (∼95%) asymptomatic but may result in clinically evident hepatitis that mainly affects older males[1,2]. Chronic infection has also been documented in immunosuppressed patients including transplant recipients, those undergoing chemotherapy for haematological malignancy, and people living with HIV[3–6].

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 19 juillet 2017
    William M. Lee
    Public Health: Acetaminophen (APAP) Hepatotoxicity— Isn’t It Time for APAP to Go Away?
    Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of pain and fever around the world. At the same time, APAP is capable of causing dose-related hepatocellular necrosis, responsible for nearly 500 deaths annually in the U.S. alone, as well as 100,000 calls to US Poison Control Centers, 50,000 emergency room visits and 10,000 hospitalizations per year. As an over-the-counter and prescription product (with opioids), APAP toxicity dwarfs all other prescription drugs as a cause for acute liver failure in the United States and Europe, but is not regulated in any significant way.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 18 juillet 2017
    Jean-Charles Nault, Valérie Paradis, Daniel Cherqui, Valérie Vilgrain, Jessica Zucman-Rossi
    Molecular classification of hepatocellular adenoma in clinical practice
    Incidental liver lesion depicted on preoperative imaging for bariatric surgery (BMI = 42) in a 34 year-old woman with oral contraceptive use of 15 years, normal blood liver tests and high CRP (11 mg/L, Nl <6). MRI showed a 6 cm liver nodule in segment V close to the gallbladder. The nodule was moderately hyperintense on T1 (in-phase) and showed a marked and heterogeneous drop in signal intensity on opposedphase sequence suggesting the presence of fat. On T2, the nodule was heterogeneous, hyperintense at the periphery and hypointense in most of the central part.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 18 juillet 2017
    Salvatore Piano, Marta Tonon, Elia Vettore, Marialuisa Stanco, Chiara Pilutti, Antonietta Romano, Sara Mareso, Carmine Gambino, Alessandra Brocca, Antonietta Sticca, Silvano Fasolato, Paolo Angeli
    Incidence, predictors and outcomes of acute-on-chronic liver failure in outpatients with cirrhosis
    Liver cirrhosis is the most advanced stage of chronic liver disease and represents a leading cause of mortality in adults, resulting in 1.03 million deaths per year worldwide [1]. For several years, cirrhosis has been considered a progressive disease characterized by a compensated phase followed by a decompensated phase and resulting invariable in death. In the last 20 years, with the development of effective etiological treatments this concept has been overcome and cirrhosis has been considered a dynamic disease across compensated and decompensated stages [2].

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 18 juillet 2017
    Philippe Kolly, Oliver Waidmann, Johannes Vermehren, Christophe Moreno, Isabelle Voegeli, Thomas Berg, David Semela, Stefan Zeuzem, Jean-François Dufour
    Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence after Direct Antiviral Agent Treatment: a European Multicentre Study
    The introduction of direct antiviral drugs (DAAs) has revolutionized the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), with sustained virologic response rates of more than 90% in most patient populations.[1] However, it has been suggested that interferon-free HCV eradication may be more harmful than beneficial in a subgroup of patients. In patients with prior curative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy, an increased tumor recurrence rate following DAA-based HCV therapy has been reported.[2,3]

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 18 juillet 2017
    Shanshan Zhang, Xinhua Song, Dan Cao, Zhong Xu, Biao Fan, Li Che, Junjie Hu, Bin Chen, Mingjie Dong, Maria G. Pilo, Antonio Cigliano, Katja Evert, Silvia Ribback, Frank Dombrowski, Rosa M. Pascale, Antonio Cossu, Gianpaolo Vidili, Alberto Porcu, Maria M. Simile, Giovanni M. Pes, Gianluigi Giannelli, John Gordan, Lixin Wei, Matthias Evert, Wenming Cong, Diego F. Calvisi, Xin Chen
    Pan-mTOR inhibitor MLN0128 is effective against intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma induced in mice by AKT and Yap co-expression
    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common liver tumor, whose incidence is rapidly rising in the Western countries [1]. Patients with ICC are commonly diagnosed at advanced stages. This excludes them from surgical resection, the only possible curative treatment [2]. Gemcitabine/Oxaliplatin based regimen is used as a standard chemotherapy for advanced ICC, but its efficacy is rather limited [3]. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this lethal malignancy.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 18 juillet 2017
    Carola Dröge, Michele Bonus, Ulrich Baumann, Caroline Klindt, Elke Lainka, Simone Kathemann, Florian Brinkert, Enke Grabhorn, Eva-Doreen Pfister, Daniel Wenning, Alexander Fichtner, Daniel N. Gotthardt, Karl Heinz Weiss, Patrick McKiernan, Ratna Dua Puri, IC Verma, Stefanie Kluge, Holger Gohlke, Lutz Schmitt, Ralf Kubitz, Dieter Häussinger, Verena Keitel
    Sequencing of FIC1, BSEP and MDR3 in a large cohort of patients with cholestasis revealed a high number of different genetic variants
    The three transport proteins familial intrahepatic cholestasis 1 (FIC1, gene symbol: ATP8B1), bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABCB11) and multidrug resistance p-glycoprotein 3 (MDR3, ABCB4) are located in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes and mediate bile formation. The FIC1 protein is encoded by the ATP8B1 gene on chromosome 18q21 and represents a P-type ATPase, flipping aminophospholipids from the outer to the inner membrane leaflet thereby maintaining membrane asymmetry, which is essential for the function of other canalicular transport proteins [1–4].

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 14 juillet 2017
    Maria Kulecka, Aldona Wierzbicka, Agnieszka Paziewska, Michal Mikula, Andrzej Habior, Wojciech Janczyk, Michalina Dabrowska, Jakub Karczmarski, Michal Lazniewski, Krzysztof Ginalski, Anna Czlonkowska, Piotr Socha, Jerzy Ostrowski
    A heterozygous mutation in GOT1 is associated with familial macro-aspartate aminotransferase
    Macroenzymes, serum high-molecular-weight compounds that are formed by polymerization or association with other serum constituents (primarily immunoglobulins [1]), are rare among the general healthy population [2]. There is evidence that they may be associated with hepatitis C [3]; autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease [4–8]; and neoplastic disorders [1,9]. An exemplary macroenzyme is the macroenzyme form of aspartate aminotransferase (macro-AST), the presence of which is generally characterized by increased serum AST activity.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 14 juillet 2017
    Carnevale Roberto, Raparelli Valeria, Nocella Cristina, Bartimoccia Simona, Novo Marta, Severino Anna, De Falco Elena, Cammisotto Vittoria, Pasquale Chiara, Crescioli Clara, Sili Scavalli Antonio, Riggio Oliviero, Basili Stefania, Violi Francesco
    Gut-derived endotoxin stimulates factor viii secretion from endothelial cells. implications for hypercoagulability in cirrhosis
    Coagulopathy is a term coined to define a close relationship between cirrhosis and clotting changes such as prolongation of PT and aPTT, which would predispose to bleeding [1]. In the recent two decades, however, the concept of a relationship between clotting changes and bleeding has been challenged for several reasons: 1) a relationship between clotting changes and bleeding has never been firmly demonstrated; 2) apart from gastrointestinal bleeding, which is dependent on hemodynamic changes in portal circulation, spontaneous and provoked bleedings are relatively rare [2,3].

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 14 juillet 2017
    Peter Fickert, Martin Wagner
    Biliary bile acids in hepatobiliary injury – What is the link?
    The main trigger for liver injury in acquired cholestatic liver disease remains unclear. However, the accumulation of bile acids (BAs) undoubtedly plays a role. Recent progress in deciphering the pathomechanisms of inborn cholestatic liver diseases, decoding mechanisms of BA-induced cell death, and generating modern BA-derived drugs has improved the understanding of the regulation of BA synthesis and transport. Now is the appropriate time to reassess current knowledge about the specific role of BAs in hepatobiliary injury.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 14 juillet 2017
    Philipp-Robert Scherber, Frank Lammert, Matthias Glanemann
    Gallstone disease: Optimal timing of treatment
    In this unfolding conundrum of life and history there is such a thing as being too late.Martin Luther King

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 06 juillet 2017
    V. Nobili, A. Mosca, E. Scorletti, C.D. Byrne
    Reply to: “Fructose, uric acid and zonal differences in NASH”
    We read with interest the letter by Mann & Armstrong, referring to our article entitled “Serum uric acid concentrations and fructose consumption are independently associated with NASH in children and adolescents”.1,2 The liver has a unique dual blood supply, receiving both arterial blood and blood from the portal vein. This phenomenon and the liver cellular architecture results in hepatocytes being exposed to differential oxygen tensions and varying concentrations of dietary nutrients, according to their position across the liver lobule.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 06 juillet 2017
    Sven Stengel, Andreas Stallmach, Klaus Richter, Andreas Landrock, Jochen Hampe, Tony Bruns
    Serum metabolic signatures in patients with overt hepatic encephalopathy
    We read with great interest the study of Weiss et al. [1] using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry in order to characterize the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolome in patients with overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE). By comparing the metabolic fingerprints in CSF from patients with OHE to neurologically healthy individuals, their data suggest a critical role of brain energy metabolism in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The majority of the identified CSF metabolites were also regulated in plasma samples from cirrhotic patients with OHE when compared to healthy controls.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 06 juillet 2017
    J.P. Mann, M.J. Armstrong
    Fructose, uric acid, and zonal differences in NASH
    We read with interest the article by Mosca et al. on the association between fructose consumption, uric acid concentration, and paediatric non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).1 The authors used a well characterised cohort of patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in whom they measured serum uric acid concentrations and estimated fructose intake using a dietary questionnaire. Fructose intake and uric acid concentrations were higher in patients with definite NASH, which was defined as a NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) of ⩾5 and was confirmed using the FLIP algorithm.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 06 juillet 2017
    Pascal Gavriilidis, Keith J. Roberts, Alan Askari, Robert P. Sutcliffe, Teh-la Huo, Po-Hong Liu, Ernest Hidalgo, Philippe Compagnon, Chetana Lim, Daniel Azoulay
    Evaluation of the Current Guidelines for Resection of hepatocellular carcinoma Using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation II Instrument
    Numerous guidelines for the management of HCC have been developed. The AGREE II is the only validated instrument to assess the methodological quality of guidelines. We aim to appraise the methodological quality of existing guidelines for the resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 06 juillet 2017
    Palak J. Trivedi, Irene Scalera, Emma Slaney, Richard W. Laing, Bridget Gunson, Gideon M. Hirschfield, Andrea Schlegel, James Ferguson, Paolo Muiesan
    Clinical outcomes of donation after circulatory death liver transplantation in primary sclerosing cholangitis
    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive fibro-inflammatory cholangiopathy stigmatised by a disproportionate impact on young patients [1,2]. Presently, liver transplantation is the only proven life-extending intervention, and PSC now accounts for 10 – 15% of all liver transplant activity within Europe [3–5]. In parallel, the overall number of patients with chronic liver disease on an active liver transplant register is increasing globally [4–6], without an appropriate rise in the donor pool [7].

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 05 juillet 2017
    Nicolas Weiss, Benoit Colsch, François Fenaille, Christophe Junot, Dominique Thabut
    Metabolic signature for severe cirrhosis with inflammation or hepatic encephalopathy: Do we really face two different entities?
    We thank Dr Stengel et al. for their positive comments about our article. Even if some improvements have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in the last decades, several issues are still not addressed (see1 for short review). Thus, aside from the main role of hyperammonemia, the role of systemic inflammation and energy brain failure was recently pointed out.2–4 The latest guidelines emphasized the need to seek a differential diagnosis when the diagnosis of HE is suspected.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 04 juillet 2017
    Jordi Bruix, Ann-Lii Cheng, Gerold Meinhardt, Keiko Nakajima, Yoriko De Sanctis, Josep Llovet
    Prognostic Factors and Predictors of Sorafenib Benefit in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Analysis of Two Phase 3 Studies
    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been steadily rising and is currently the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, with approximately 750,000 deaths reported in 2012 [1]. Overall, the 5-year survival rate for patients with HCC is less than 20% [2]. For patients with early-stage HCC, curative treatments, such as surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation, are recommended [3–7]. However, most patients with HCC present at intermediate and advanced stages when these therapies are no longer effective.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 03 juillet 2017
    Hasina Samji, Amanda Yu, Margot Kuo, Maryam Alavi, Ryan Woods, Maria Alvarez, Gregory J. Dore, Mark Tyndall, Mel Krajden, Naveed Z. Janjua, BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort Team
    Late hepatitis B and C diagnosis in relation to disease decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma development
    An estimated 230,000–450,000 (0.66%–1.3%) Canadians are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 43,000-181,000 (0.2%– 0.8%) with hepatitis B virus (HBV)[1]. Effective HBV therapy and the advent of highly effective and well-tolerated direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for treatment of HCV infections[2,3] have created an unprecedented opportunity to treat and/or cure HBV and HCV. However, many of those with HBV and a large proportion of individuals with HCV remain undiagnosed and are therefore unable to benefit from these clinical advances.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 03 juillet 2017
    Scheiner Bernhard, Lindner Gregor, Reiberger Thomas, Schneeweiss Bruno, Trauner Michael, Zauner Christian, Funk Georg-Christian
    Acid-base disorders in liver disease
    Next to the kidneys and lungs, the liver has been recognized as an important regulator of acid-base homeostasis. While respiratory alkalosis is the most common acid-base disorder in chronic liver disease, various complex metabolic acid-base disorders may occur with liver dysfunction. Although the standard variables of acid-base equilibrium, such as pH and overall base excess, often fail to unmask the underlying cause of acid-base disorders, the physical-chemical acid-base model allows a more in-depth pathophysiological understanding and clinical judgement of acid-base disorders in patients with liver diseases.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 01 juillet 2017
    Olivier Chazouillères
    24-Norursodeoxycholic acid in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: A new “urso saga” on the horizon?
    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare and chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause, commonly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and characterized by progressive obliterative fibrosis of the biliary tree. Although the natural course may be variable from one patient to another, PSC is often progressive, leading to complications of biliary cirrhosis and death. Development of biliary malignancy is also a major (but distinct of disease course) issue. There is currently no medical treatment with proven efficacy for PSC, despite numerous clinical trials conducted over decades.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 30 juin 2017
    Martin Beck, Peter Schirmacher, Stephan Singer
    TEMPORARY REMOVAL: Alterations of the nuclear transport system in hepatocellular carcinoma – new basis for therapeutic strategies
    The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated.The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 29 juin 2017
    European Association for the Study of the Liver
    Response to the Cochrane systematic review on DAA-based treatment of chronic hepatitis C
    EASL, the European Association for the Study of the Liver, one of the world leading associations of liver specialists, feels compelled to express its serious concerns after the recent publication of a Cochrane Group systematic review entitled “Direct acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C” by Jakobsen et al. After reviewing 138 clinical trials, including 25,232 participants, the authors conclude that: “Overall, direct acting antivirals (DAAs) on the market or under development do not seem to have any effects on risk of serious adverse events.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 28 juin 2017
    Sven H. Loosen, Christoph Roderburg, Katja L. Kauertz, Inês Pombeiro, Catherine Leyh, Fabian Benz, Mihael Vucur, Thomas Longerich, Alexander Koch, Till Braunschweig, Tom F. Ulmer, Christoph Heidenhain, Frank Tacke, Marcel Binnebösel, Maximilian Schmeding, Christian Trautwein, Ulf P. Neumann, Tom Luedde
    Elevated levels of circulating osteopontin are associated with a poor survival after resection of cholangiocarcinoma
    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) represents the most common biliary tract malignancy and the second most common primary tumour of the liver, accounting for 10–20% of all primary liver cancers [1,2]. Classified into three subgroups according to their anatomical location (intrahepatic, perihiliar and distal), all types of CCA share a dismal prognosis with a 5-year survival rate below 5% for advanced tumour stages [3,4]. The overall global incidence of CCA shows large geographical variations between 0.5 and 85 cases per 100.000 population and has steadily increased over the last decades [5–7].

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 26 juin 2017
    Johanne Poisson, Fanny Turon, Christophe Marzac, Dominique-Charles Valla, Juan-Carlos Garcia-Pagan, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou
    Reply to: “Calreticulin mutations and their importance in Budd-Chiari syndrome”
    We thank Jain Abhinav et al.1 for their letter “Calreticulin mutations and their importance in Budd-Chiari syndrome”, raising the hypothesis that the type of CALR mutation may influence the haematological phenotype in patients with splanchnic vein thrombosis.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 26 juin 2017
    Jain Abhinav, Tibdewal Pratik, Shukla Akash
    Calreticulin mutations and their importance in Budd-Chiari syndrome
    We have read your recent publications on Calreticulin (CALR) gene mutations in splanchnic vein thrombosis with great interest. Poisson et al [1] reported prevalence of myeloproliferative neoplasms in a cohort of 99 patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), out of which 28 had JAK2V617F gene mutation and one had CALR gene mutation. The authors suggested that a combination of spleen height ≥ 16 cm and platelet count >200 x109/L be tested for CALR mutation, in the absence of JAK2 gene mutation. Turon et al [2] reported 24 JAK2V617F gene mutations and two CALR gene mutations among 69 patients with BCS.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 24 juin 2017
    Terry Cheuk-Fung Yip, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Yee-Kit Tse, Kelvin Long-Yan Lam, Grace Lai-Hung Wong
    Impact of age and gender on risk of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance
    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide [1]. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance is a surrogate of ultimate immune control of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The annual incidence of spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance varies from 0.12% to 2.38% in Asian cohorts and from 0.54% to 1.98% in Western cohorts [2]. The rate and durability of HBsAg seroclearance induced by nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) is recently found to be comparable to those developed spontaneously [3].

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 24 juin 2017
    Ulrike Protzer
    Visualizing HEV infection in human liver tissue
    Hepatitis E is a disease caused by infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV infection has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Since most infections remain asymptomatic, the prevalence of HEV infection has long been underestimated. The large number of infected individuals (20million/year) renders HEV as the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis, causing 55,000 deaths and 3,000 stillbirths every year.1

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 21 juin 2017
    Mark Kin Fai Ma, Eunice Yuen Ting Lau, Doris Hoi Wing Leung, Jessica Lo, Nicole Pui Yu Ho, Lily Kwan Wai Cheng, Stephanie Ma, Chi Ho Lin, John A. Copland, Jin Ding, Regina Cheuk Lam Lo, Irene Oi Lin Ng, Terence Kin Wah Lee
    Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase regulates sorafenib resistance via modulation of ER stress induced differentiation
    Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) is one of the deadliest diseases, being the fifth most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world [1]. The frontline treatment for this disease is liver transplantation and surgical resection. Despite intensive research into better therapeutic options, the only success we have so far is with the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib. It is the only drug currently approved by the FDA and serves as the standard treatment for HCC patients in advanced stages.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 21 juin 2017
    Veronica Marin, Kyle Poulsen, Gemma Odena, Megan R. McMullen, Jose Altamirano, Pau Sancho-Bru, Claudio Tiribelli, Juan Caballeria, Natalia Rosso, Ramon Bataller, Laura E.Nagy
    Hepatocyte-derived macrophage migration inhibitory factor mediates alcohol-induced liver injury in mice and patients
    Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary cause of liver-related mortality in western countries[1]. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is the most severe form of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and there is an urgent need to develop novel targeted therapies for severe AH[2]. Multiple molecular and cellular mechanisms contribute to the development of ALD. Prolonged alcohol abuse leads to an imbalance between intracellular antioxidant defense systems and the production of free radical species, promoting lipid peroxidation[3].

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 21 juin 2017
    Thierry Gustot, Javier Fernandez, Gyongyi Szabo, Agustin Albillos, Alexandre Louvet, Rajiv Jalan, Richard Moreau, Christophe Moreno
    Sepsis in Alcohol-related Liver Disease
    Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) remains the most important cause of death due to alcohol. Infections, particularly bacterial infections, are one of the most frequent and severe complications of advanced ALD, as alcoholic cirrhosis and severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH). The specific mechanisms responsible of this altered host defence become to be deciphered. The aim of the present work is to review the current knowledge about infectious complications in ALD and the pathophysiological mechanisms, distinguishing the role of alcohol consumption and the contribution of different forms of ALD.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 21 juin 2017
    Xiao Xiang, Xue-Mei You, Jian-Hong Zhong, Le-Qun Li
    Hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection
    We were excited to read the impressive article just published in Journal of Hepatology by Chayanupatkul and coworkers1 who found that fewer than 10% of HCC cases in CHB patients developed in the absence of cirrhosis in the U.S.A. The main risk factors for this entity were African American and Asian race, a family history of HCC and hypertension. Therefore, the study by Chayanupatkul et al. suggests that in the absence of cirrhosis, HCC surveillance should be considered for African American and Asian patients if they are older than 40 and have a family history of HCC or are hypertensive.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 20 juin 2017
    Fred Poordad, David R. Nelson, Jordan J. Feld, Michael W. Fried, Heiner Wedemeyer, Lois Larsen, Daniel E. Cohen, Eric Cohen, Niloufar Mobashery, Fernando Tatsch, Graham R. Foster
    Safety of the 2D/3D direct acting antiviral regimen in HCV-induced Child-Pugh A cirrhosis - a pooled analysis
    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by progressive liver damage and fibrosis, which can lead to liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma [1]. In 2013, an estimated 357,800 people worldwide died from HCV-related cirrhosis, and an additional 342,500 people died from liver cancer caused by HCV [2]. The burden of HCV-associated liver disease is projected to continue to increase in many countries in the coming decades [3].

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 20 juin 2017
    Christophe Bureau, Danielle Adebayo, Mael Chalret de Rieu, Laure Elkrief, Dominique Valla, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Anne McCune, Victor Vargas, Macarena Simon-Talero, Juan Cordoba, Paolo Angeli, Silvia Rosi, Stewart MacDonald, Massimo Malago, Maria Stepanova, Zobair M. Younossi, Claudia Trepte, Randall Watson, Oleg Borisenko, Sun Sun, Neil Inhaber, Rajiv Jalan
    alfapump System vs. Large Volume Paracentesis for Refractory Ascites: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Study
    Accumulation of ascites is a common complication of cirrhosis and one of the leading reasons for hospital admission [1]. Approximately 60% of cirrhotic patients develop ascites within 10 years of diagnosis. Treatment of ascites includes restriction of dietary sodium and diuretics [2]. However, some patients develop diuretic-resistant or intractable ascites, because of diuretic-induced complications such as renal dysfunction, hyponatremia or hepatic encephalopathy (HE) [3,4].

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 20 juin 2017
    Florent Artru, Alexandre Louvet, Isaac Ruiz, Eric Levesque, Julien Labreuche, Jose Ursic-Bedoya, Guillaume Lassailly, Sebastien Dharancy, Emmanuel Boleslawski, Gilles Lebuffe, Eric Kipnis, Philippe Ichai, Audrey Coilly, Eleonora De Martin, Teresa Maria Antonini, Eric Vibert, Samir Jaber, Astrid Herrerro, Didier Samuel, Alain Duhamel, Georges-Philippe Pageaux, Philippe Mathurin, Faouzi Saliba
    Liver transplantation in the most severely ill cirrhotic patients: A multicenter study in acute-on-chronic liver failure grade 3
    Most countries have adopted the policy of allocating livers to the most severely ill patients when selecting candidates for liver transplantation (LT) with decompensated cirrhosis. This involves providing grafts to patients with the most advanced liver disease. Indeed, these patients are at the greatest risk of dying on the waiting list and therefore benefit most from LT, confirmed by a hazard ratio for mortality that decreases along with the severity of liver failure.1 End-stage cirrhosis is associated with the failure of other organs (renal insufficiency, encephalopathy, coagulopathy etc.).

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 20 juin 2017
    Maria J. Guillen Sacoto, Ariel F. Martinez, Yu Abe, Paul Kruszka, Karin Weiss, Joshua L. Everson, Ramon Bataller, David E. Kleiner, Jerrold M. Ward, Kathleen K. Sulik, Robert J. Lipinski, Benjamin D. Solomon, Maximilian Muenke
    Human Germline Hedgehog Pathway Mutations Predispose to Fatty Liver
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease in the United States, affecting 20-30% of adults and 7.6% of children [1]. The severity of NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis (fat deposition without inflammation) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [2,3]. Although NAFLD is usually associated with obesity, type-2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia [4]—primarily as a result of high intake of foods rich in sugar and saturated fats (e.g., Western-style diet) and inactive lifestyles—epidemiological studies, differences in prevalence among ethnicities, and evidence of familial aggregation suggest a genetic component [5–7].

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 20 juin 2017
    Sanchari Roy, Heike Bantel, Franziska Wandrer, Anne Theres Schneider, Jeremie Gautheron, Mihael Vucur, Frank Tacke, Christian Trautwein, Tom Luedde, Christoph Roderburg
    miR-1224 inhibits cell proliferation in acute liver failure by targeting the antiapoptotic gene Nfib
    Acute liver failure (ALF) represents a life-threatening condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. In ALF, liver cell death normally induces compensatory cell proliferation to restore liver mass and avoid loss of organ function [1,2]. While the balance of liver regeneration and hepatocyte death plays a critical role in the outcome of ALF [3,4], the underlying regulatory mechanisms linking cell death with compensatory proliferation are still only poorly understood.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 19 juin 2017
    Jian-Gao Fan, Seung-Up Kim, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong
    New Trends on Obesity and NAFLD in Asia
    Traditionally, obesity and its related diseases are considered problems in Western countries. However, in the past two decades, urbanization in many Asian countries has led to sedentary lifestyle and overnutrition, and has set the stage for the epidemic of obesity. This article reviews the epidemiological trend of obesity in Asia with special emphasis on the emerging condition of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Currently, the population prevalence of NAFLD in Asia is around 25%, similar to that in many Western countries.

    Date de mise en ligne : Dimanche 18 juin 2017
    Paola Bertuccio, Federica Turati, Greta Carioli, Teresa Rodriguez, Carlo La Vecchia, Matteo Malvezzi, Eva Negri
    Reply to: “How to predict global trends in HCC mortality if neglect more than half the world’s cases?”
    We thank Dr. Sun for their interest in our work, and agree that China is the “great country of liver cancer”, a major site showing upward trends in several areas of the world.1 We also agree that it is difficult to predict trends in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality in China, given the different evolving trends of its main risk factors, i.e. hepatitis B and C, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes and alcohol use.2 We also appreciate the additional data they provided on liver cancer in China.

    Date de mise en ligne : Dimanche 18 juin 2017
    Qing Pang, Hui-Chun Liu, Lei Zhou, Hao Jin
    Inappropriate use of FIB-4 index for cirrhosis detection in hepatocellular carcinoma patients
    Recently, Chayanupatkul and colleagues compared the demographic and clinical characteristics between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic subgroups in patients with hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).1 The authors concluded that race and HCC family history were the main risk factors for HCC in the absence of cirrhosis. In this study, hepatic cirrhosis was identified by Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score (with a cut-off value of 3.25) in partial HCC patients. As mentioned by Chayanupatkul et al.1 FIB-4 has a superior diagnostic performance for the detection of liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).

    Date de mise en ligne : Dimanche 18 juin 2017
    Maneerat Chayanupatkul, Fasiha Kanwal
    Reply to “Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the absence of cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection”
    We would like to thank Dr. Xiang and colleagues for their inquiries regarding our recently published article on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the absence of cirrhosis. Our responses are as follows.

    Date de mise en ligne : Dimanche 18 juin 2017
    Maneerat Chayanupatkul, Fasiha Kanwal
    Reply to “Inappropriate use of FIB-4 index for cirrhosis detection in hepatocellular carcinoma patients”
    We would like to thank Dr. Pang and colleagues for their comments on the limitation of using FIB-4 in determining cirrhosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 16 juin 2017
    Upkar S. Gill, Patrick T.F. Kennedy
    Current therapeutic approaches for HBV infected patients
    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is traditionally thought to progress through distinct disease phases; HBeAg positive chronic infection, HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis, HBeAg negative chronic infection and HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis (formerly referred to as immune tolerant, immune clearance, immune control and immune escape respectively).1,2 Treatment is usually reserved for those patients with HBeAg positive or negative chronic hepatitis, with evidence of clinically active disease and the presence of fibrosis.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 14 juin 2017
    Simone Susser, Julia Dietz, Bernhard Schlevogt, Eli Zuckerman, Mira Barak, Valeria Piazzolla, Anita Howe, Holger Hinrichsen, Sandra Passmann, Rasha Daniel, Markus Cornberg, Alessandra Mangia, Stefan Zeuzem, Christoph Sarrazin
    Origin, prevalence and response to therapy of hepatitis C virus genotype 2k/1b chimeras
    A global pathogen, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to severe liver damage in chronically infected patients. Development of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver failure and finally death are all associated with chronic HCV infection.1 A recent study estimated a global prevalence of chronic HCV infection of 80 (64–103) million people,2 of which approximately 500,000 die each year from HCV-related liver diseases.3

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 13 juin 2017
    Li-Yang Sun, Han Zhang, Zhen-Li Li, Chao Li, Ming-Da Wang, Tian Yang
    How to predict global trends in HCC mortality if neglecting more than half the world’s cases?
    We read with great interest the article by Bertuccio et al.,1 and appreciate their meaningful work. Using the World Health Organization database on death certification, this study analyzed the data for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) over the period of 1990–2014. Sixteen European, five American countries, and six other countries worldwide were included, as well as the European Union (EU) as a whole. The authors claimed that their study has updated the worldwide trends for HCC mortality and made predictions for the trends of 2020.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 13 juin 2017
    Hiroko Nagata, Mina Nakagawa, Yasuhiro Asahina, Ayako Sato, Yu Asano, Tomoyuki Tsunoda, Masato Miyoshi, Shun Kaneko, Satoshi Otani, Fukiko Kawai-Kitahata, Miyako Murakawa, Sayuri Nitta, Yasuhiro Itsui, Seishin Azuma, Sei Kakinuma, Toshihiko Nouchi, Hideki Sakai, Makoto Tomita, Mamoru Watanabe, Ochanomizu Liver Conference Study Group
    Effect of interferon-based and -free therapy on early occurrence and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death in the world[1]. Viral eradication after interferon (IFN)-based therapy has been associated with a reduced risk of developing HCC[2,3] in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. With the development of potent direct-acting antiviral agent (DDA) combinations, an over 90% sustained virological response (SVR) was achieved, even in patients with a high risk for the development of HCC such as those who are elderly or have severe fibrosis[4].

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 13 juin 2017
    John Fung, Henri Bismuth
    In Memoriam: The Contributions of Thomas Earl Starzl, MD, PhD (1926–2017)
    “Great men never disappear. But yes. But no.” – Henri Bismuth

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 12 juin 2017
    Anna Alisi, Pietro Vajro
    Pre-natal and post-natal environment monitoring to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered as one of the most common liver diseases worldwide. It mainly affects adults and children with an obese and dysmetabolic phenotype. Prevalence of NAFLD diverges widely across the world with age, ethnicity, gender and diagnostic procedure. However, the increase of NAFLD is particularly alarming in the pediatric population, where epidemiological studies reveal prevalence values ranging between 20–30% in Western nations and 5–18% in Asia, and up to 90% in all obese individuals.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 12 juin 2017
    Oyekoya T. Ayonrinde, Wendy H. Oddy, Leon A. Adams, Trevor A. Mori, Lawrence J. Beilin, Nicholas de Klerk, John K. Olynyk
    Infant nutrition and maternal obesity influence the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex disorder in which there is an excessive fat deposition in the liver that is commonly associated with obesity and insulin resistance in the absence of excessive alcohol intake. NAFLD is now the most common liver disorder in humans,1 with a general population prevalence of 2.6% in children,2 15.2% in adolescents3 and 19–25% in adults.4–6 Population data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the USA showed a doubling of the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in adolescents over a 20-year period, up to 2010.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 07 juin 2017
    Giulia Dondi, Giulia Lancellotti, Marco Bertolotti, Chiara Mussi
    The relationship between age and fat infiltration in liver and muscle
    We read with great interest the paper by Koo et al. in the January issue of the Journal of Hepatology.1

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 07 juin 2017
    Thomas Reiberger, Mattias Mandorfer
    Reply to: “Beta adrenergic blockade and advanced cirrhosis: Does it really improve survival in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure?”
    We want to thank Dr. Kalambokis and colleagues for their letter commenting on some interesting aspects of our recent Grand Rounds article on the use of non-selective betablockers (NSBBs) in patients with decompensated cirrhosis published in the Journal of Hepatology.1

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 06 juin 2017
    Marion Duriez, Yassmina Mandouri, Bouchra Lekbaby, Hualin Wang, Aurélie Schnuriger, Francois Redelsperger, Chiara Ida Guerrera, Marine Lefevre, Veronique Fauveau, James Ahodantin, Ivan Quetier, Cerina Chhuon, Samir Gourari, Alexandre Boissonnas, Upkar Gill, Patrick Kennedy, Nabil Debzi, Delphine Sitterlin, Mala K. Maini, Dina Kremsdorf, Patrick Soussan
    Alternative splicing of hepatitis B virus: A novel virus/host interaction altering liver immunity
    Constitutive splicing is an essential step for eukaryotic gene expression, generating mature mRNAs by removing introns and allowing exons to be joined together accurately. In contrast, alternate splicing (including exon skipping, intron retention, alternate 3′ or 5′ splice sites) contributes to the diversity of the eukaryotic proteome1 and controls the expression of regulatory proteins in the viral context.2 The splicing process is coordinated by the spliceosome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 06 juin 2017
    Georgios N. Kalambokis, Gerasimos Baltayannis, Dimitrios Christodoulou, Leonidas Christou
    Beta adrenergic blockade and advanced cirrhosis: Does it really improve survival in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure?
    We read with great interest the article by Thomas Reiberger and Mattias Mandorfer on the optimal use of non-selective beta-blockers (NSBBs) in patients with advanced cirrhosis.1 The safety of NSBBs in end-stage cirrhosis has been an issue of intense debate in recent years, due to the associated reduction in cardiac reserve.1 The positive impact of NSBBs on overall survival was reported by prospective studies, including studies in highly selected patient populations with less severe cirrhosis and short-term follow-up in the context of clinical trials,2 or in the setting of a transplant wait-list.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 05 juin 2017
    Xiufang Weng, Ying He, Lavanya Visvabharathy, Chia-Min Liao, Xiaosheng Tan, Arjun Balakumar, Chyung-Ru Wang
    Crosstalk between type II NKT cells and T cells leads to spontaneous chronic inflammatory liver disease
    The liver is constantly exposed to large varieties of antigens derived from the gastrointestinal tract and from systemic circulation, a possible explanation for why liver tissue is subject to a greater degree of immune tolerance than some other organs.1 Despite this, disruption of tolerance leads to inflammatory liver injuries during chronic diseases, such as persistent viral infection,2 drug toxicity3 and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH).4 As one of the predominant lymphocyte populations in the liver, CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells contribute to the maintenance of immune tolerance, but also direct adverse immune responses in the liver.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 05 juin 2017
    Emily S. Wires, Kathleen A. Trychta, Susanne Bäck, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C. Rice, Brandon K. Harvey
    High fat diet disrupts endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in the rat liver
    Metabolic disorders have plagued developing countries in the past century. Excessive nutrient intake, sedentary lifestyles, and increased food availability have all contributed to disease progression. According to the World Health Organization, in 2014 approximately 1.9billion adults were overweight, with 600 million estimated to be obese.1 Aside from comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes often associated with obesity, the effects are also seen on a cellular level. Hepatocytes in particular, are among the cells most affected by obesity.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 05 juin 2017
    Peng-Fei Ma, Chun-Chen Gao, Jing Yi, Jun-Long Zhao, Shi-Qian Liang, Yang Zhao, Yu-Chen Ye, Jian Bai, Qi-Jun Zheng, Ke-Feng Dou, Hua Han, Hong-Yan Qin
    Cytotherapy with M1-polarized macrophages ameliorates liver fibrosis by modulating immune microenvironment in mice
    The cellular and molecular mechanisms for M1 BMDMs-mediated cytotherapy of liver fibrosis. The M1 BMDMs are homed to the fibrotic liver after infusion ①.These cells increase the recruitment of monocytes-derived macrophages and NK cells from blood stream by secreting chemokines (such as CCL2 and CCL3), and enhance their activation. Especially, M1 BMDMs “polarize” the recruited endogenous macrophages into a Ly6Clo restorative phenotype ②. The activated NK cells (aNK) and Ly6Clo macrophages produce TRAIL, MMPs, and HGF ③, to promote the degradation of collagen, the apoptosis of HSCs, and the proliferation of hepatocytes ④.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 juin 2017
    Salvatore Petta, Giulio Marchesini
    Coffee and tea breaks for liver health
    Let food be your medicine (Hippocrates, ≈400 B. C.)

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 juin 2017
    Louise J.M. Alferink, Juliana Fittipaldi, Jessica C. Kiefte-de Jong, Pavel Taimr, Bettina E. Hansen, Herold J. Metselaar, Josje D. Schoufour, M. Arfan Ikram, Harry L.A. Janssen, Oscar H. Franco, Sarwa Darwish Murad
    Coffee and herbal tea consumption is associated with lower liver stiffness in the general population: The Rotterdam study
    Chronic liver diseases constitute a major public health problem. Liver cirrhosis was the 12th cause of death worldwide and the sixth cause of life-years lost in the adult population in developed countries in 2010.1,2 Chronic liver diseases are often silent for over 20years until cirrhosis develops. Indeed, several studies have suggested that liver fibrosis may be present within unselected individuals. Using transient elastography (TE) as a diagnostic tool for liver fibrosis, a prevalence of 6–7% was found in the general population3,4 and even up to 17% in those high-risk populations with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 26 mai 2017
    Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Paola de Andrade Mello, Vanessa R. Figliuolo, Thiago F. de Avelar Almeida, Patrícia T. Santana, Suellen D.S. Oliveira, Claudia L.M. Silva, Linda Feldbrügge, Eva Csizmadia, Richard D. Minshall, Maria Serena Longhi, Yan Wu, Simon C. Robson, Robson Coutinho-Silva
    CD39 limits P2X7 receptor inflammatory signaling and attenuates sepsis-induced liver injury
    Sepsis is a leading cause of death in intensive care units worldwide1 and represents a major public health issue due to high numbers of deaths of economically productive people and major morbidity in survivors. Aspects of the associated morbidity and mortality are related to onset of shock and hemodynamic compromise with multiple organ system dysfunction and failure due to the excessive, unfettered inflammation.1,2

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 26 mai 2017
    Toshiaki Teratani, Kengo Tomita, Takahiro Suzuki, Hirotaka Furuhashi, Rie Irie, Shigeaki Hida, Yoshikiyo Okada, Chie Kurihara, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Hidetsugu Saito, Toshifumi Hibi, Soichiro Miura, Ryota Hokari, Takanori Kanai
    Free cholesterol accumulation in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells exacerbates acetaminophen hepatotoxicity via TLR9 signaling
    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol [APAP]) is one of the most widely used drugs worldwide owing to its applications in managing pain and hyperthermia; however, APAP can induce liver injury. Consequently, APAP-induced liver injury is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in the USA and elucidation of the pathological mechanisms of this condition are critical.1

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 23 mai 2017
    Zhen Lu, Bingfeng Zuo, Renwei Jing, Xianjun Gao, Quan Rao, Zhili Liu, Han Qi, Hongxing Guo, HaiFang Yin
    Dendritic cell-derived exosomes elicit tumor regression in autochthonous hepatocellular carcinoma mouse models
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presents as one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide owing to its aggressive nature, high mortality and low response rates to treatments in the clinic.1 A multitude of therapeutic approaches are under intensive investigation. Among them, chemotherapeutic and radiotherapeutic interventions have been extensively used, however the survival benefit is limited.2 Resection surgery is effective for early-stage HCC patients, but is only amenable to a subpopulation of patients and HCC frequently recurs.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 22 mai 2017
    Manuel Romero-Gómez, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Michael Trenell
    Treatment of NAFLD with diet, physical activity and exercise
    Lifestyle intervention can be useful across all the spectrum of NAFLD patients. Losing weight decreases cardiovascular / diabetes risk and also regresses liver disease. Weight reductions of ≥ 10% are required for inducing near universal NASH resolution or fibrosis improvement by at least one stage. However, modest weight losses (>5%) also produce important benefits on NAS and its components. In addition, to improve the success of this intervention we need to explore, beyond total calories and type of weight loss diet, the role of micro and macronutrients, evidence-based benefits of physical activity and exercise and finally supporting these modifications through established behaviour change models and techniques.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 19 mai 2017
    Lai Wei, David Kung-Chun Chiu, Felice Ho-Ching Tsang, Dicky Cheuk-Ting Law, Carol Lai-Hung Cheng, Sandy Leung-Kuen Au, Joyce Man-Fong Lee, Carmen Chak-Lui Wong, Irene Oi-Lin Ng, Chun-Ming Wong
    Histone methyltransferase G9a promotes liver cancer development by epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor gene RARRES3
    Deregulation of G9a in human HCC. G9a was frequently up-regulated in human HCC and implicated in HCC tumorigenesis and metastasis. The frequent up-regulation of G9a in human HCC was attributed to gene copy number gain at 6p21 and loss of miR-1. The oncogenic function of G9a was at least partially attributed to the epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor RARRES3.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 19 mai 2017
    Julien Calderaro, Gabrielle Couchy, Sandrine Imbeaud, Giuliana Amaddeo, Eric Letouzé, Jean-Frédéric Blanc, Christophe Laurent, Yacine Hajji, Daniel Azoulay, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Jean-Charles Nault, Jessica Zucman-Rossi
    Histological subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma are related to gene mutations and molecular tumour classification
    Malignant primary liver tumours are the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with an increasing incidence in almost all countries.1 They are mainly represented by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that results from the malignant transformation of hepatocytes. The most frequent risk factors of HCC comprise of alcohol intake, infection by hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) viruses, and metabolic syndrome.2 Although surveillance protocols of patients at-risk to develop HCC have significantly improved, clinical outcome remains poor with a majority of patients presenting with advanced disease not eligible for curative therapy.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 18 mai 2017
    Thomas Pembroke, Marc Deschenes, Bertrand Lebouché, Amine Benmassaoud, Maida Sewitch, Peter Ghali, Philip Wong, Alex Halme, Elise Vuille-Lessard, Costa Pexos, Marina B. Klein, Giada Sebastiani
    Hepatic steatosis progresses faster in HIV mono-infected than HIV/HCV co-infected patients and is associated with liver fibrosis
    Hepatic steatosis (HS) is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which may eventually progress to steatohepatitis, a pathologic inflammatory response leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver failure.1 HS is particularly common in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, with reported frequencies ranging between 30 and 70%.2–6 HCV may induce HS through several mechanisms, including altered lipid metabolism, metabolic risk factors in non-genotype 3 infections and a direct steatogenic effect of HCV genotype 3.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 18 mai 2017
    Lester Suárez-Amarán, Carla Usai, Marianna Di Scala, Cristina Godoy, Yi Ni, Mirja Hommel, Laura Palomo, Víctor Segura, Cristina Olagüe, Africa Vales, Alicia Ruiz-Ripa, Maria Buti, Eduardo Salido, Jesús Prieto, Stephan Urban, Francisco Rodríguez-Frias, Rafael Aldabe, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza
    A new HDV mouse model identifies mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) as a key player in IFN-β induction
    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV), the only member of the genus Deltavirus, is a defective RNA virus that requires the surface antigens of hepatitis B virus (HBV) (HBsAg) for viral assembly and transmission, and that dictates hepatocyte tropism.1,2 HBV/HDV co-infection is more frequently associated with severe or fulminant hepatitis, higher risk of cirrhosis and decompensated liver disease, and higher mortality than HBV mono-infection.3–7

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 18 mai 2017
    Peter Fickert, Gideon M. Hirschfield, Gerald Denk, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Istvan Altorjay, Martti Färkkilä, Christoph Schramm, Ulrich Spengler, Roger Chapman, Annika Bergquist, Erik Schrumpf, Frederik Nevens, Palak Trivedi, Florian P. Reiter, Istvan Tornai, Emina Halilbasic, Roland Greinwald, Markus Pröls, Michael P. Manns, Michael Trauner, European PSC norUDCA Study Group
    norUrsodeoxycholic acid improves cholestasis in primary sclerosing cholangitis
    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiology characterized by a chronic inflammatory and fibro-obliterative destruction of extra-, and intrahepatic bile ducts.1 Currently there are no medical therapies with proven benefits on PSC patients’ survival. The list of drugs that have failed in PSC treatment is long, comprising of azathioprine, cyclosporine, methotrexate, tacrolimus, penicillamine, cholchicine, and infliximab.2 Consequently, liver transplantation is the only treatment option for PSC patients with end-stage liver disease.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 18 mai 2017
    Kristofer Andréasson, Jesper Waldenström, Johan Westin, Hans Norrgren, Göran Jönsson, Kristina Nyström, Martin Lagging
    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein associates with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in hepatitis C virus infection
    We read with great interest the report by Magdaleno et al., recently published in the Journal of Hepatology.1 The authors show that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) contributes to the progression of liver fibrosis by regulating collagen deposition. They also establish how the absence of COMP is associated with decreased hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in two experimental models of liver fibrosis.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 17 mai 2017
    Marina Ruiz de Galarreta, Amaia Lujambio
    Therapeutic editing of hepatocyte genome in vivo
    The recent development of gene editing platforms enables making precise changes in the genome of eukaryotic cells. Programmable nucleases, such as meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated nucleases, have revolutionized the way research is conducted as they facilitate the rapid production of mutant or knock-out cellular and animal models. These same genetic tools can potentially be applied to cure or alleviate a variety of diseases, including genetic diseases that lack an efficient therapy.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 16 mai 2017
    Reiner Wiest, Agustin Albillos, Michael Trauner, Jashmohan Bajaj, Rajiv Jalan
    'Targeting the gut-liver axis in liver disease'
    The gut is open to the outer environment, harbours the microbiome containing several fold more genetic material than the human genome and produces a myriad of metabolites as well as hormones/peptides. The liver is at the nexus between this vast source of nutrients, toxins and hormones and the remaining human body. Not surprisingly, this liver-gut-axis has hence, been demonstrated in experimental models and in-vitro systems to contribute to the pathogenesis of most liver diseases such as alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), -steatohepatitis (NASH), cholestatic liver diseases, hepatocellular carcinoma, acute-on-chronic liver failure, progression to fibrosis/cirrhosis and complications of cirrhosis.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 12 mai 2017
    Qiuhe Wang, Yong Lv, Ming Bai, Zhengyu Wang, Haibo Liu, Chuangye He, Jing Niu, Wengang Guo, Bohan Luo, Zhanxin Yin, Wei Bai, Hui Chen, Enxin Wang, Dongdong Xia, Xiaomei Li, Jie Yuan, Na Han, Hongwei Cai, Tao Li, Huahong Xie, Jielai Xia, Jianhong Wang, Hongbo Zhang, Kaichun Wu, Daiming Fan, Guohong Han
    Eight millimetre covered TIPS does not compromise shunt function but reduces hepatic encephalopathy in preventing variceal rebleeding
    Since its introduction into clinical practice, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has been recommended by guidelines and Baveno consensus.1–7 TIPS has been used widely in patients with portal hypertension complications not amenable to standard therapy for nearly 30years.8 However, no consensus has been reached regarding the key issue of stent diameter selection,5,9 owing to the theoretical dilemma that larger stents would achieve better shunt patency and more sufficient portal decompression, but increase the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and vice versa.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 12 mai 2017
    Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Salvatore Petta, Jean-Baptiste Hiriart, Calogero Cammà, Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Fabio Marra, Julien Vergniol, Anthony Wing-Hung Chan, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Wassil Merrouche, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan, Brigitte Le Bail, Umberto Arena, Antonio Craxì, Victor de Lédinghen
    Validity criteria for the diagnosis of fatty liver by M probe-based controlled attenuation parameter
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease worldwide and has become an important cause of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma.1–4 The presence of fatty liver and metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic viral hepatitis is also associated with increased risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.5–8 Abdominal ultrasonography is commonly used to diagnose fatty liver, but it cannot reliably diagnose mild steatosis, and its performance is suboptimal in obese patients.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 12 mai 2017
    Massimo Colombo, Patrick Maisonneuve
    Controlling liver cancer mortality on a global scale: Still a long way to go
    In an era where practice in hepatology has been revolutionised by an avalanche of therapeutic breakthroughs, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still stands as one of the most difficult to cure end-stage liver diseases and the dominant cause of death in patients with compensated cirrhosis of any aetiology.1 In 2012, the death toll from HCC was striking, resulting in an estimated 521,000 men and 224,500 women dying from liver cancer, making it the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men and the sixth in women, worldwide.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 10 mai 2017
    Ashraf A. Ashhab, Holly Rodin, Jesse Powell, Jose D. Debes
    Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis and surveillance: Socioeconomic factors don’t seem to matter, unless you are an immigrant
    Evaluation of factors affecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance in patients with cirrhosis is an important topic that has been neglected for several years.1 This is surprising considering the heavy burden of HCC-related deaths and the beneficial impact in survival that can be achieved through early detection.2 Several studies this year have attempted to define factors associated with improved HCC surveillance.3–5 Those studies addressed the association of adherence to HCC surveillance programs in cirrhotic patients with patients’ knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers mainly through self-reporting surveys.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 09 mai 2017
    Won-Jung Shin, Gyu-Sam Hwang
    Reply to: “Pressure volume curves in cirrhosis: More than meets the eye”
    We would like to thank Dr. Ripoll et al. for their great interest in our paper. They commented that there was an inaccuracy of noninvasive single-beat approach for estimating Ees (end-systolic left ventricular elastance). Although it is already clearly described in the limitation section of our paper, we correspond with their remarks, because a non-invasive method has inherent limitations compared to an invasive approach. However, an invasive method to obtain exact Ees, a slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR), is surprisingly too invasive, requiring both LV catheters and occlusion balloon obstructing inferior vena cava in humans.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 08 mai 2017
    Alvaro Santos-Laso, María J. Perugorria, Jesús M. Banales
    O-GlcNAcylation: Undesired tripmate but an opportunity for treatment in NAFLD-HCC
    Non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) is acknowledged as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of NAFLD has dramatically increased in the last years due to “globesity” (i.e. the global epidemic of being overweight and obesity) and diabetes.1,2 Although NAFLD is considered a benign condition, it can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).3 Notably, NASH accounts for a significant proportion (13–38%) of cryptogenic HCC cases developed in cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic livers.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 08 mai 2017
    Milan Jirsa
    Cytotoxic bilirubin metabolites overlooked so far
    Whereas the biological properties and toxicity of biliverdin,1 bilirubin2–4 and its photoizomers5 have been studied for decades, to date, the bioactive properties of bilirubin degradation products, resulting mainly from bilirubin oxidation, have been overlooked. The present paper by Seidel and colleagues describing the bioactive properties of two major bilirubin degradation products Z-BOX A and B aims to fill the gap in this field. The study is a natural continuation of the series of three previous papers published in chemical journals that describe the acquisition of the key tools essential for subsequent biological studies: synthesis of Z-BOX A,6 synthesis of Z-BOX B7 and a liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry method suitable for simultaneous determination of both Z-BOXes in biological specimens.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 08 mai 2017
    Cristina Ripoll, Raquel Yotti, Rafael Bañares, Javier Bermejo
    Pressure volume curves in cirrhosis: More than meets the eye
    We read with great interest the study by Shin et al. “Effect of ventriculo-arterial coupling on transplant outcomes in cirrhotics: analysis of pressure volume curve relations” published in the February issue of Journal of Hepatology.1 In their study, the authors evaluate the prognostic role of non-invasive estimations of cardiac chamber properties based on the pressure volume relationship in a large group of patients with cirrhosis, and conclude that the ventricular-arterial coupling can be used as a prognostic index in patients with cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 06 mai 2017
    Sunyoung Lee, Seong Hyun Kim, Ji Eun Lee, Dong Hyun Sinn, Cheol Keun Park
    Preoperative gadoxetic acid–enhanced MRI for predicting microvascular invasion in patients with single hepatocellular carcinoma
    Vascular invasion, either macrovascular or microvascular invasion (MVI), is a well-known major prognostic factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), after surgical resection or liver transplantation.1–4 In particular, MVI of HCC is a major risk factor for early recurrence during the first 2 years after curative treatment.5,6 Although macrovascular invasion can be frequently detected prior to surgery by complementary imaging modalities, including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MVI can rarely be determined preoperatively because it is a histopathological diagnosis.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 05 mai 2017
    Alfonso Tan-Garcia, Lu-En Wai, Dahai Zheng, Erica Ceccarello, Juandy Jo, Nasirah Banu, Atefeh Khakpoor, Adeline Chia, Christine Y.L. Tham, Anthony T. Tan, Michelle Hong, Choong Tat Keng, Laura Rivino, Kai Chah Tan, Kang Hoe Lee, Seng Gee Lim, Evan W. Newell, Norman Pavelka, Jinmiao Chen, Florent Ginhoux, Qingfeng Chen, Antonio Bertoletti, Charles-Antoine Dutertre
    Intrahepatic CD206+ macrophages contribute to inflammation in advanced viral-related liver disease
    Chronic viral infections (HBV and HCV) are leading causes of end-stage liver disease (cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]).1 Since both viruses are not directly cytopathic, hepatocyte death and related inflammatory events are thought to be principally caused by activated virus-specific T cells recognising infected hepatocytes.2 However, in chronic viral hepatitis, unlike an acute infection, virus-specific T cells are low in frequency and even undetectable in end-stage liver disease.3 In addition, virus-specific T cells are often functionally exhausted.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 05 mai 2017
    Mitra K. Nadim, Joseph DiNorcia, Lingyun Ji, Susan Groshen, Josh Levitsky, Randall S. Sung, W. Ray Kim, Kenneth Andreoni, David Mulligan, Yuri S. Genyk
    Inequity in organ allocation for patients awaiting liver transplantation: Rationale for uncapping the model for end-stage liver disease
    The disparity between the availability of donor organs and the growing number of patients awaiting transplant is one of the greatest challenges in organ transplantation. A needs-based allocation policy prioritizes those at greatest risk of death on the waitlist while a utility-based policy prioritizes graft and patient survival. In 1998, the United States (US) Department of Health and Human Services adopted the Final Rule, which set guidelines for organ allocation based on medical urgency.1 The goal was to balance equity and utility in the distribution of organs while avoiding futility.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 05 mai 2017
    Johanne Poisson, Aurélie Plessier, Jean-Jacques Kiladjian, Fanny Turon, Bruno Cassinat, Annalisa Andreoli, Emmanuelle De Raucourt, Odile Goria, Kamal Zekrini, Christophe Bureau, Florence Lorre, Francisco Cervantes, Dolors Colomer, François Durand, Juan-Carlos Garcia-Pagan, Nicole Casadevall, Dominique-Charles Valla, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Christophe Marzac, French national network for vascular liver diseases
    Selective testing for calreticulin gene mutations in patients with splanchnic vein thrombosis: A prospective cohort study
    Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) indicates Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal venous system thrombosis (PVT). Primary BCS is a rare disorder defined as a blocked hepatic venous outflow tract at various levels from small hepatic veins to the terminal portion of the inferior vena cava.1 Non-malignant non-cirrhotic extrahepatic PVT is characterized by thrombus development in the main portal vein and/or its right or left branches and/or splenic or mesenteric veins, or by the permanent obliteration that results from a prior thrombus.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 05 mai 2017
    Jessica Fioravanti, Pietro Di Lucia, Diletta Magini, Federica Moalli, Carolina Boni, Alexandre Pierre Benechet, Valeria Fumagalli, Donato Inverso, Andrea Vecchi, Amleto Fiocchi, Stefan Wieland, Robert Purcell, Carlo Ferrari, Francis V. Chisari, Luca G. Guidotti, Matteo Iannacone
    Effector CD8+ T cell-derived interleukin-10 enhances acute liver immunopathology
    It is widely recognized that hepatitis B virus (HBV) replicates non-cytopathically in the hepatocyte. Most of the clinical complications related to this infection is reflected in the adaptive immune response, particularly the virus-specific effector CD8+ T cell response.1–5 Indeed, by killing infected cells and secreting antiviral cytokines, effector CD8+ T cells (CD8 TE) reaching the infection sites are major contributors to viral clearance as well as tissue immunopathology.1–5

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 05 mai 2017
    Johannes Mueller, Hanna Raisi, Vanessa Rausch, Teresa Peccerella, David Simons, Christian Herbert Ziener, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Helmut Karl Seitz, Nina Waldburger, Thomas Longerich, Beate Katharina Straub, Sebastian Mueller
    Sensitive and non-invasive assessment of hepatocellular iron using a novel room-temperature susceptometer
    Besides hereditary iron overload diseases,1,2 many chronic liver diseases such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ultimately cause hepatic iron overload (HIO).3 HIO is highly toxic and carcinogenic in animal models4,5 due to the Fenton reaction.6 In humans, both in hereditary hemochromatosis and ALD, HIO determines overall survival7,8 and independently increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).9,10 While treatment of HIO e.g.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 05 mai 2017
    Giulia Bellini, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice, Valerio Nobili, Francesca Rossi
    The IRGM rs10065172 variant increases the risk for steatosis but not for liver damage progression in Italian obese children
    We read with great interest the article by Lin et al.1 regarding the ability of the autophagy-related gene (IRGM) variants to confer susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by modulating lipophagy. Autophagy plays a crucial role in hepatocyte lipid storage. The study firstly demonstrates that IRGM variants increase the risk for NAFLD in obese children. In particular, the IRGM-rs10065172 TT-genotype increases the risk of twice compared to other genotypes regardless of the contribution to NAFLD given by i) genetic factors (PNPLA3, GCKR and TMS6F2 variants), ii) phenotypic factors (insulin resistance and body mass index), and iii) predisposing factors (age and sex).

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 05 mai 2017
    Yu-Cheng Lin, Yen-Hsuan Ni
    Reply to: “The IRGM rs10065172 variant increases the risk for steatosis but not for liver damage progression in Italian obese children”
    We appreciate the interest of Bellini and colleagues in our study on the association of immunity-related GTPase family M (IRGM) polymorphism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese Taiwanese children.1 They replicated the association between IRGM rs10065172 genotype and NAFLD in 613 Italian obese children. The finding confirms the impact of this genetic variant in different ethnic groups.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 03 mai 2017
    Che C. Colpitts, Thomas F. Baumert
    SCARB1 variants and HCV infection: Host susceptibility is lost in translation
    Approximately 150 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Despite the remarkable advancement of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in recent years, achieving high cure rates, HCV remains a major global health burden. In the absence of curative therapy, chronically infected individuals are at high risk of developing severe liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Even viral cure does not eliminate the risk of HCC in all patients.1 Approximately 25% of HCV-infected individuals spontaneously clear infection in the acute phase and do not go on to become chronically infected.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 28 avril 2017
    Angela C. Cheung, Brian D. Juran, Raymond M. Moore, Nicholas F. LaRusso, Konstantinos N. Lazaridis
    Doublecortin domain containing protein 2 (DCDC2) genetic variants in primary sclerosing cholangitis
    We read with great interest the study by T. Grammatikopoulos et al. that reported an association between neonatal sclerosing cholangitis (NSC) and loss of function mutations in doublecortin domain containing protein 2 (DCDC2).1 On electron microscopy, the cholangiocytes of these patients lacked primary cilia.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 28 avril 2017
    Tassos Grammatikopoulos, Richard J Thompson
    Reply to: “Doublecortin domain containing protein 2 (DCDC2) genetic variants in primary sclerosing cholangitis”
    We would like to thank Cheung et al. for their comments on possible genetic associations between neonatal sclerosing cholangitis (NSC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).1 Cheung et al. through whole exome sequencing in a group of 67 (30 under 18years old) patients diagnosed with PSC, identified three missense variants in doublecortin domain containing 2 (DCDC2) gene [c.1368A>T; p.(Lys456Asn), c.661A>G; p.(Ser221Gly) and c.454C>G; p.(Pro152Ala)] with minimal predicted effect on protein function.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 21 avril 2017
    Dorothea Bankwitz, Mandy Doepke, Kathrin Hueging, Romy Weller, Janina Bruening, Patrick Behrendt, Ji-Young Lee, Florian W.R. Vondran, Michael P. Manns, Ralf Bartenschlager, Thomas Pietschmann
    Maturation of secreted HCV particles by incorporation of secreted ApoE protects from antibodies by enhancing infectivity
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae that is transmitted parenterally.1 HCV encodes a single polyprotein that is cleaved by cellular and viral enzymes into the structural proteins core and envelope protein 1 (E1) and E2, the p7 ion channel protein, and the non-structural proteins NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A and NS5B. The capsid protein encases the viral RNA genome and the E1-E2 proteins are embedded into the viral lipid membrane, where they mediate receptor interactions and viral membrane fusion during cell entry.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 21 avril 2017
    Marcel Klingenberg, Akiko Matsuda, Sven Diederichs, Tushar Patel
    Non-coding RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma: Mechanisms, biomarkers and therapeutic targets
    The development of high-throughput RNA sequencing technology has led to the discovery of thousands of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes. The number of newly identified ncRNA genes is increasing and already outnumbers the number of coding transcripts.1 ncRNAs are participating in a plethora of physiological and pathological processes.2,3 This was surprising since most ncRNAs were thought to be the product of random transcription without any intrinsic function. But instead of solely being “junk RNA”, there is evidence that ncRNAs are functionally important molecules in the cell.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 21 avril 2017
    Naoki Kawagishi, Goki Suda, Masahiro Onozawa, Megumi Kimura, Osamu Maehara, Jun Ito, Masato Nakai, Takuya Sho, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Kenichi Morikawa, Koji Ogawa, Naoya Sakamoto
    Hepatitis B virus reactivation during hepatitis C direct-acting antiviral therapy in patients with previous HBV infection
    The worldwide use of interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has raised concerns regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation after HCV clearance. In patients with HCV and HBV co-infection, HBV-reactivation has been reported during or after IFN-based anti-HCV treatment. Because HCV is thought to suppress HBV replication,1 therapeutic eradication of HCV may increase HBV replication, resulting in HBV-reactivation. Until recently, the standard therapy for chronic HCV infection was IFN-based therapy.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 20 avril 2017
    Anderson Brito-Azevedo
    Carvedilol and survival in cirrhosis with ascites: A cognitive bias?
    I read with great interest the study performed by Sinha and co-workers. They examined whether long-term use of carvedilol in the presence of ascites is a risk factor for mortality.1

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 20 avril 2017
    Sofie Hallager, Steen Ladelund, Nina Weis
    Methodological considerations when calculating person-time at risk for patients with chronic hepatitis C undergoing antiviral treatment
    We have read the manuscript entitled “Survival of patients with HCV cirrhosis and sustained virologic response is similar to the general population” by Bruno et al. published in Journal of Hepatology with great interest.1 The authors show that overall survival among chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with compensated cirrhosis after the achievement of sustained virologic response 24weeks after end of treatment (SVR24) is similar to survival observed in the sex- and age-matched background population in Italy (standardized mortality ratio 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.72–1.35)).

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 20 avril 2017
    Rohit Sinha, Khalida A. Lockman, John N. Plevris, Peter C. Hayes
    Reply to: “Carvedilol and survival in cirrhosis with ascites: A cognitive bias?”
    We acknowledge the letter from Dr Brito-Azevedo in response to our paper, “Carvedilol use is associated with improved survival in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites”.1 We do not accept the idea of cognitive bias in our study; instead, we put forward the argument of cognitive ability based on our extensive clinical experience.2 Our study was designed to address the anxiety around using beta-blockers in patients with advanced liver disease, which led to the ‘window hypothesis’.3,4

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 20 avril 2017
    Savino Bruno, Patrick Maisonneuve
    Reply to: “Methodological considerations when calculating person-time at risk for patients with chronic hepatitis C undergoing antiviral treatment”
    In response to the letter from Dr. Hallager,1 we previously show that patients with compensated hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis achieving a sustained virologic response (SVR) by interferon-based (IFN) regimen obtain a main benefit of leveling their survival curve to that of the general population.2 However, we started follow-up of patients with SVR from the date of initiation of antiviral therapy. We agree with Dr. Hallager that this may have introduced an immortal time bias since response to IFN was determined only 24weeks after the treatment cessation.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 17 avril 2017
    European Association for the Study of the Liver
    EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global public health problem with changing epidemiology due to several factors including vaccination policies and migration. This Clinical Practice Guideline presents updated recommendations for the optimal management of HBV infection. Chronic HBV infection can be classified into five phases: (I) HBeAg-positive chronic infection, (II) HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis, (III) HBeAg-negative chronic infection, (IV) HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis and (V) HBsAg-negative phase.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 13 avril 2017
    Christine Thöns, Tina Senff, Theresa J. Hydes, Angela R. Manser, Falko M. Heinemann, Andreas Heinold, Martin Heilmann, Arthur Y. Kim, Markus Uhrberg, Norbert Scherbaum, Georg M. Lauer, Salim I. Khakoo, Jörg Timm
    HLA-Bw4 80(T) and multiple HLA-Bw4 copies combined with KIR3DL1 associate with spontaneous clearance of HCV infection in people who inject drugs
    After exposure to HCV, the majority of PWID develop chronic HCV infection that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A small subgroup of PWID is able to clear HCV infection before and after seroconversion. PWID with multiple Bw4 alleles are more likely to clear HCV prior to seroconversion than PWID with one or no Bw4 allele. In addition, PWID that encode both KIR3DL1 and a Bw4 80(T) motif have higher chances of spontaneously clearing HCV after seroconversion.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 13 avril 2017
    Daniela Lenggenhager, Jérôme Gouttenoire, Mohsen Malehmir, Marion Bawohl, Hanna Honcharova-Biletska, Susanne Kreutzer, David Semela, Jörg Neuweiler, Sandra Hürlimann, Patrick Aepli, Montserrat Fraga, Roland Sahli, Luigi Terracciano, Laura Rubbia-Brandt, Beat Müllhaupt, Christine Sempoux, Darius Moradpour, Achim Weber
    Visualization of hepatitis E virus RNA and proteins in the human liver
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus of the family Hepeviridae and genus Orthohepevirus.1 It is a water- or food-borne, enterically transmitted infectious agent, causing the most common form of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, thus constituting a globally significant health problem.2,3 The 7.2kb HEV genome comprises three opening reading frames (ORF) coding for the viral replicase (ORF1), the capsid protein (ORF2), and a small phosphoprotein required for the secretion of viral particles (ORF3), respectively.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 13 avril 2017
    Paul Y. Kwo, Fred Poordad, Armen Asatryan, Stanley Wang, David L. Wyles, Tarek Hassanein, Franco Felizarta, Mark S. Sulkowski, Edward Gane, Benedict Maliakkal, J. Scott Overcash, Stuart C. Gordon, Andrew J. Muir, Humberto Aguilar, Kosh Agarwal, Gregory J. Dore, Chih-Wei Lin, Ran Liu, Sandra S. Lovell, Teresa I. Ng, Jens Kort, Federico J. Mensa
    Glecaprevir and pibrentasvir yield high response rates in patients with HCV genotype 1–6 without cirrhosis
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global disease burden, with 350,000 deaths attributed to HCV-related complications annually.1,2 Geographic distributions of HCV genotypes vary widely.2,3 Of the six major HCV genotypes, genotype 3 infection accounts for approximately 30% of global HCV infections and is now considered the most difficult to cure with interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy.3,4 Highly effective and safe IFN-free DAA HCV treatments are available, and some may provide broad coverage for all six major genotypes with 12 weeks of treatment.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 13 avril 2017
    Daniela Katinka van Santen, Jannie Johanna van der Helm, Julia Del Amo, Laurence Meyer, Antonella D'Arminio Monforte, Matt Price, Charles Antoine Béguelin, Robert Zangerle, Mette Sannes, Kholoud Porter, Ronald Bertus Geskus, Maria Prins, CASCADE Collaboration in EuroCoord
    Lack of decline in hepatitis C virus incidence among HIV-positive men who have sex with men during 1990–2014
    Since 2000, hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence has increased among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).1,2 Using data from the CASCADE Collaboration (Concerted Action on SeroConversion to AIDS and Death in Europe) in EuroCoord, we previously showed that HCV incidence increased in MSM with well-estimated HIV seroconversion dates after 1990, but the main expansion of the HCV epidemic was observed from 2002 until 2007, the censoring date of the analysis.1 A recent meta-analysis showed that HCV incidence has continued to increase, with an estimated pooled incidence of 13/1,000 person-years (py) in 2010 to an extrapolated incidence estimate of 19/1,000 py in 2015.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 13 avril 2017
    Raphael A. Seidel, Thierry Claudel, Franziska A. Schleser, Navin K. Ojha, Matthias Westerhausen, Sandor Nietzsche, Christoph Sponholz, Frans Cuperus, Sina M. Coldewey, Stefan H. Heinemann, Georg Pohnert, Michael Trauner, Michael Bauer
    Impact of higher-order heme degradation products on hepatic function and hemodynamics
    Heme (iron protoporphyrin IX) serves as a prosthetic group in a variety of proteins involved in oxygen transport, redox reactions, and signaling.1 When released extracellularly, labile heme acts as an alarmin2 and cytotoxic agonist3 that is encountered by scavenger systems.4 Intracellular heme concentrations are tightly controlled by its enzymatic degradation via heme oxygenases (HO),5 yielding the first-order degradation products biliverdin, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO).6,7 The induction of HO-1 reflects a hallmark of the cellular response to oxidative stress and confers tissue protection during infection and inflammation.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 13 avril 2017
    Ruth Zimmermann, Christian Kollan, Patrick Ingiliz, Stefan Mauss, Daniel Schmidt, Viviane Bremer
    Reply to: “Negotiating better discounts for DAA therapy is critical to achieve HCV elimination by 2030”
    We thank Dr. Dore and Dr. Grebely for their interest in our study. In their letter, the authors compare the response concerning the availability of direct acting antivirals (DAAs) of the Australian healthcare system with the German situation, as published by us. The conclusion is that the tenfold higher costs in Germany may lead to an indirect prioritization of patients, and therefore negatively impact access to therapy. We agree that the tenfold disparity in DAA drug pricing between two high income countries is irritating and probably has a negative impact on the steps towards a global elimination of hepatitis C.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 11 avril 2017
    Nicola Tumino, Rita Casetti, Gabriele Fabbri, Eleonora Cimini, Antonella Romanelli, Federica Turchi, Olindo Forini, Veronica Bordoni, Andrea Antinori, Adriana Ammassari, Alessandra Sacchi, Chiara Agrati
    In HIV/HCV co-infected patients T regulatory and myeloid-derived suppressor cells persist after successful treatment with directly acting antivirals
    The advent of directly acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, also in patients with HIV co-infection.1 DAA are able to quickly clear HCV with a high success rate because of their potent antiviral action, resulting in more than 90% of sustained virological response (SVR). Although this is an extraordinary improvement in virological efficacy, several issues concerning the medium and long-term response remain to be addressed: regression of hepatic fibrosis, reduction of liver cancer incidence, and normalization of immunological functions.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 11 avril 2017
    Gregory J. Dore, Jason Grebely
    Negotiating better discounts for DAA therapy is critical to achieve HCV elimination by 2030
    The paper from Zimmerman et al. estimating the number of people treated and total costs of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in Germany between 2010 and 20151 brings into focus major disparities in drug pricing globally, and the impact this may have in achieving HCV elimination goals.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 11 avril 2017
    Hamid Hasson, Marco Merli, Emanuela Messina, Sherrie Bhoori, Stefania Salpietro, Giulia Morsica, Enrico Regalia, Sabrina Bagaglio, Adriano Lazzarin, Caterina Uberti-Foppa, Vincenzo Mazzaferro
    Occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV/HCV co-infected patients treated with direct-acting antivirals
    We read with great interest the manuscripts by Conti et al. and Cheung et al. on the incidence of de novo hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis treated with interferon-free anti-HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)-based regimens.1,2 Their papers followed a “note of caution” related to an unexpected high incidence of recurring HCC after resection or ablation while on DAAs-based therapy,3 and this triggered a controversial debate with potential clinical implications.4

    Date de mise en ligne : Dimanche 09 avril 2017
    Bettina Langhans, Ulrich Spengler
    Reply to: “In HIV/HCV co-infected patients T regulatory and myeloid derived suppressor cells persist after successful treatment with directly acting antivirals”
    DAAs in hepatitis C – do they reverse all?

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 07 avril 2017
    Michaël Schwarzinger, Sylvain Baillot, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Jürgen Rehm, Vincent Mallet
    Contribution of alcohol use disorders on the burden of chronic hepatitis C in France, 2008–2013: A nationwide retrospective cohort study
    Since its discovery in 1989, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognized as a major cause of liver disease progression to liver-related complications and mortality worldwide.1 New direct-acting antiviral drug combinations showing up to 100% efficacy to eradicate HCV were marketed in early 2014.2 Liver disease progression models support widespread screening and treatment to reduce the burden of HCV.3 The underlying assumptions of these models are usually twofold: 1) chronic HCV infection is the main factor of liver disease progression; 2) cured patients revert to the risks of liver-related complications and mortality of the general population.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 06 avril 2017
    Deepak Agrawal, Brian Davis, Andrew Quinn, Dwain Thiele
    Should anti-LKM1 be routine for work-up of elevated liver enzymes?
    We read with interest the simulation model approach by Tapper et al. to answer an important and practical question of non-directed (testing for all diseases at once) vs. directed (just common diseases first) testing of patients with elevated liver enzymes.1 The authors conclude that the testing for elevated liver enzymes should be deliberate and directed to account for pre-test probabilities (i.e. testing for rare diseases should be performed only after common diseases are excluded).

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 06 avril 2017
    Elliot B. Tapper, Neil Sengupta
    Reply to: “Should anti-LKM1 be routine for work-up of elevated liver enzymes?”
    The diagnostic evaluation of elevated liver enzymes is an exceedingly common clinical activity. Dozens of serologic tests are available for this purpose, each easily selected with the convenience of a click in most electronic health records. We recently studied a cost-utility model of directed vs. extensive testing based on the two available population-based studies of elevated liver enzymes.1 In aggregate these studies – both the model and the primary data on which it was based2,3 – reinforce that the vast majority of patients have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or alcoholic liver disease, both of which lack serologic tests for diagnosis.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 06 avril 2017
    Elham Shirvani-Dastgerdi, Benjamin Y. Winer, Toni Celià-Terrassa, Yibin Kang, David Tabernero, Eray Yagmur, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías, Josep Gregori, Tom Luedde, Christian Trautwein, Alexander Ploss, Frank Tacke
    Selection of the highly replicative and partially multidrug resistant rtS78T HBV polymerase mutation during TDF-ETV combination therapy
    Over 240 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. Despite advances in vaccination and treatment, HBV-related deaths due to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increased between 1990 and 2013 globally by 33% to >686,000 cases in 2013.1 Therefore, the main treatment goal for chronic hepatitis B is to suppress viral replication and consequently to prevent progression of the disease.2 In most cases, this is achieved by the orally available nucleos(t)ide analogues that act as competitive inhibitors of the HBV reverse transcriptase, as their incorporation into the DNA strand provokes chain termination and hence suppresses HBV replication.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 04 avril 2017
    Sumera Rizvi, Gregory J. Gores
    Emerging molecular therapeutic targets for cholangiocarcinoma
    Cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) are diverse epithelial tumors arising from the liver or large bile ducts with features of cholangiocyte differentiation. CCAs are classified anatomically into intrahepatic (iCCA), perihilar (pCCA), and distal CCA (dCCA). Each subtype has distinct risk factors, molecular pathogenesis, therapeutic options, and prognosis. CCA is an aggressive malignancy with a poor overall prognosis and median survival of less than 2years in patients with advanced disease. Potentially curative surgical treatment options are limited to the subset of patients with early-stage disease.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mercredi 29 mars 2017
    Ji Yeon Kim, Keon Jae Park, Joo-Yeon Hwang, Gyu Hee Kim, DaeYeon Lee, Yoo Jeong Lee, Eun Hyun Song, Min-Gyu Yoo, Bong-Jo Kim, Young Ho Suh, Gu Seob Roh, Bin Gao, Won Kim, Won-Ho Kim
    Activating transcription factor 3 is a target molecule linking hepatic steatosis to impaired glucose homeostasis
    Obesity is a major underlying risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D).1 A common pathogenic event in both animals and humans with obesity and T2D is hepatic lipid accumulation, which is the earliest phenotype of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).2 NAFLD has reached epidemic levels worldwide because its incidence has gradually increased in the non-obese Asian population as well as the obese populations of the United States and Europe.3 Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the histologic form of NAFLD that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and it is closely linked to hepatic insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 28 mars 2017
    Sandra Westhaus, Maximilian Deest, Anna T.X. Nguyen, Frauke Stanke, Dirk Heckl, Rui Costa, Axel Schambach, Michael P. Manns, Thomas Berg, Florian W.R. Vondran, Christoph Sarrazin, Sandra Ciesek, Thomas von Hahn
    Scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1) variants modulate hepatitis C virus replication cycle and viral load
    Today about 2% of the world population are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Unless detected in time and treated successfully, chronic hepatitis C often leads to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and the need for liver transplantation. Recently approved novel specific antiviral drugs have markedly increased the chances of curing infection. Nonetheless HCV infection remains a significant public health challenge and one of the main reasons for liver transplantation.1 Moreover, many aspects in the molecular interaction between this major pathogen and its human host remain to be fully understood.

    Date de mise en ligne : Vendredi 24 mars 2017
    Weiqi Xu, Xiang Zhang, Jian-lin Wu, Li Fu, Ken Liu, Dabin Liu, George Gong Chen, Paul Bo-san Lai, Nathalie Wong, Jun Yu
    O-GlcNAc transferase promotes fatty liver-associated liver cancer through inducing palmitic acid and activating endoplasmic reticulum stress
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common human malignancies and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide.1 A retrospective cohort study of indications for adult liver transplantation from 2002 to 2012 revealed a nearly 4-fold increase in patients undergoing liver transplantation for HCC secondary to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) compared to only a 2.5-fold increase for HCC secondary to HCV during the study period.2 With the control of viral hepatitis and the escalating obesity epidemic, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated HCC is occupying a greater proportion of HCC incidence in recent decades.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 23 mars 2017
    Tania M. Welzel, Neeru Bhardwaj, Charlotte Hedskog, Krishna Chodavarapu, Gregory Camus, John McNally, Diana Brainard, Michael D. Miller, Hongmei Mo, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Ira Jacobson, Stefan Zeuzem, Kosh Agarwal
    Global epidemiology of HCV subtypes and resistance-associated substitutions evaluated by sequencing-based subtype analyses
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human liver pathogen. It is estimated that >170million people are affected worldwide and at risk for progressive liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma.1,2 HCV is classified into seven genotypes and 67 subtypes, and displays ∼30% divergence at the genotype level and ∼15% divergence at the subtype level.3 HCV diversity is derived in part from its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that lacks proofreading capability, recombination, genetic drift, and immune pressures on the virus.

    Date de mise en ligne : Mardi 21 mars 2017
    Morgan E. Preziosi, Sucha Singh, Erika V. Valore, Grace Jung, Branimir Popovic, Minakshi Poddar, Shanmugam Nagarajan, Tomas Ganz, Satdarshan P. Monga
    Mice lacking liver-specific β-catenin develop steatohepatitis and fibrosis after iron overload
    Hereditary hemochromatosis, a prototypical iron overload disorder, is one of the most common genetic disorders in the United States. It occurs in approximately 1 in 200 Caucasians, and 40% of the healthy population in the US carry a mutation predisposing them to iron overload.1 Mutations in key iron homeostasis genes cause a progressive accumulation of iron in parenchymal cells of various tissues. The liver is one of the major organs affected, and around 75% of clinically affected hemochromatosis patients have evidence of liver disease at presentation.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 20 mars 2017
    Paola Bertuccio, Federica Turati, Greta Carioli, Teresa Rodriguez, Carlo La Vecchia, Matteo Malvezzi, Eva Negri
    Global trends and predictions in hepatocellular carcinoma mortality
    Primary liver cancer, and specifically hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is still the third cause of cancer death worldwide, with exceedingly high rates in East/Southeast Asia, several areas of Africa and, historically, southern Europe. In addition, over the last decade, liver cancer was one of the few cancer sites showing upward trends in both sexes in several countries worldwide.1

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 18 mars 2017
    Luca S. Belli, Christophe Duvoux, Marina Berenguer, Thomas Berg, Audrey Coilly, Isabelle Colle, Stefano Fagiuoli, Saye Khoo, Georges Philippe Pageaux, Massimo Puoti, Didier Samuel, Mario Strazzabosco
    ELITA consensus statements on the use of DAAs in liver transplant candidates and recipients
    The advent of safe and highly effective direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has had huge implications for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) transplant field, and changed our management of both patients on the waiting list and those with HCV graft re-infection after liver transplantation (LT). When treating HCV infection before LT, HCV re-infection of the graft can be prevented in nearly all patients. In addition, some candidates show a remarkable clinical improvement and may be delisted.Alternatively, HCV infection can be treated post-LT either soon after the transplant, taking advantage of the removal of the infected native liver, or at the time of disease recurrence, as was carried out in the past.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 18 mars 2017
    Ao Huang, Xin Zhao, Xin-Rong Yang, Fu-Qiang Li, Xin-Lan Zhou, Kui Wu, Xin Zhang, Qi-Man Sun, Ya Cao, Hong-Mei Zhu, Xiang-Dong Wang, Huan-Ming Yang, Jian Wang, Zhao-You Tang, Yong Hou, Jia Fan, Jian Zhou
    Circumventing intratumoral heterogeneity to identify potential therapeutic targets in hepatocellular carcinoma
    Identifying mutations through next generation sequencing facilitates targeted therapy.1 This has led to basket and umbrella trials that have evaluated the use of off-label agents in cancer patients who carry targetable mutations.2 A minority of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), who are diagnosed at early stage, can receive curative treatments. For patients with advanced HCC, the standard therapy of sorafenib has a low response rate.3 Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore whether genomic profiling could help select HCC patients who could benefit from sorafenib, or alternatively identify patients who harbor mutations indicating the use of other off-label targeted drugs.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 18 mars 2017
    Stéphanie Patouraux, Déborah Rousseau, Stéphanie Bonnafous, Cynthia Lebeaupin, Carmelo Luci, Clémence M. Canivet, Anne-Sophie Schneck, Adeline Bertola, Marie-Christine Saint-Paul, Antonio Iannelli, Jean Gugenheim, Rodolphe Anty, Albert Tran, Béatrice Bailly-Maitre, Philippe Gual
    CD44 is a key player in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
    Global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) ranges from 22% to 28%.1 The spectrum of these hepatic abnormalities extends from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH) and steatofibrosis leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is one of the main causes of cirrhosis and increases the risk of liver-related death and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite this major public health concern, treatment of NAFLD is still elusive (apart from lifestyle changes) as there is lack of efficacious pharmacological treatment.

    Date de mise en ligne : Samedi 04 mars 2017
    Henrike Julich-Haertel, Sabine K. Urban, Marcin Krawczyk, Arnulf Willms, Krzysztof Jankowski, Waldemar Patkowski, Beata Kruk, Maciej Krasnodębski, Joanna Ligocka, Robert Schwab, Ines Richardsen, Sebastian Schaaf, Angelina Klein, Sebastian Gehlert, Hanna Sänger, Markus Casper, Jesus M. Banales, Detlef Schuppan, Piotr Milkiewicz, Frank Lammert, Marek Krawczyk, Veronika Lukacs-Kornek, Miroslaw Kornek
    Cancer-associated circulating large extracellular vesicles in cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma
    A decade ago extracellular vesicles (EVs) raised little attention in the scientific communities around the globe. Nowadays, EV research has become intense and acquired more attention, including within the liver research community.1,2 Over the years, researchers explored the likely role of EVs, including small EVs as exosomes (50–100nm in diameter)3 and large EVs, e.g. microvesicles/microparticles (MVs/MPs; 100–1000nm in diameter).4 Rarely, MVs/MPs were referred to as ‘ectosomes’.5 However, the underlying biogenesis of exosomes and MVs/MPs is different and unique.

    Date de mise en ligne : Dimanche 26 fvrier 2017
    Nikolaj Worm Ørntoft, Ole Lajord Munk, Kim Frisch, Peter Ott, Susanne Keiding, Michael Sørensen
    Hepatobiliary transport kinetics of the conjugated bile acid tracer 11C-CSar quantified in healthy humans and patients by positron emission tomography
    Bile acids are important for intestinal uptake of lipophilic compounds and regulation of metabolism.1–5 Since the major pool of bile acids undergoes enterohepatic circulation and de novo synthesis only plays a minor role, efficient hepatocellular uptake from blood and subsequent secretion into bile is essential to prevent hepatic and systemic accumulation of these potentially cytotoxic compounds.3,4 This becomes particularly evident in liver diseases associated with varying degrees of cholestasis.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 13 fvrier 2017
    Annalisa Berzigotti
    Non-invasive evaluation of portal hypertension using ultrasound elastography
    Portal hypertension (PH) leads to serious complications, such as bleeding from gastroesophageal varices, ascites and portosystemic encephalopathy in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Gold standard methods for assessing PH and its complications include the measurement of hepatic venous pressure gradient and endoscopy; however, these are invasive, expensive and not available at all centres. Therefore, non-invasive alternatives have been the subject of extensive investigation over the last 20years.

    Date de mise en ligne : Lundi 18 fvrier 2013
    Shunji Nagai, Marcelo Facciuto, Shozo Mori, Mizuki Ninomiya, Juan P. Rocca, Alan Contreras-Saldivar, Myron E. Schwartz, Sander S. Florman
    WITHDRAWN: Recurrence prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation by ischemia time and tumor characteristics
    This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    EASL-AASLD Masterclass. Paris, France, 2017

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    EASL Fellowships

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    OBC Download the free EASL HCV Advisor App

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    Katalin Dezső, András Rókusz, Edina Bugyik, Armanda Szücs, András Szuák, Bence Dorogi, Mátyás Kiss, Ágnes Nemeskéri, Péter Nagy, Sándor Paku
    Erratum to “Human liver regeneration in advanced cirrhosis is organized by the portal tree” [J Hepatol 66 (2017) 778–786]
    The Publisher regrets that the color of the Figs. 1–6 in the printed article was incorrect. The figures are reproduced correctly below.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    Richard Moreau, Ramon Bataller, Thomas Berg, Jessica Zucmann-Rossi, Rajiv Jalan
    From the Editor’s desk...
    It has been proposed that coffee and tea have beneficial effects on liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Alferink et al. analyzed the participants who underwent transient elastography, ultrasound and completed a food frequency questionnaire from the Rotterdam study, a large prospective population-based cohort study. The authors included 2,424 participants, of whom 5% had liver stiffness measure (LSM) ⩾8.0kPa and 34% had steatosis. The proportion of participants with LSM ⩾8.0kPa decreased with higher coffee consumption.

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    EASL–AASLD joint meeting: Definition, therapeutic advances and clinical endpoints in alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic hepatitis. London, United Kingdom, 2017

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    EASL Endorsement & Sponsorship

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    EASL First NAFLD Summit: Target-oriented approach to diagnosis and pharmacotherapy of NASH, a dialogue between academia and industry. Rome, Italy, 2017

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    EASL Short-term training fellowship, Andrew K. Burroughs

    Date de mise en ligne : Jeudi 01 janvier 1970
    Editorial Board