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Publications Thématiques

Thématique : Le Prurit

The molecular adsorbent recirculating system as a liver support system: summary of Mexican experience.
Cisneros-Garza LE, Muñoz-Ramírez Mdel R, Muñoz-Espinoza LE, Ruiz Velasco JA, Moreno-Alcántar R, Marín-López E, Méndez-Sánchez N.
Ann Hepatol. 2014 Mar-Apr;13(2):240-7.

AIM : The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the molecular absorbent recirculating system (MARS) on patients with acute liver failure (ALF) and liver failure with cirrhosis (AoCLF) as well as in cholestatic patients with intractable pruritus in a Mexican population.
MATERIAL AND METHODS : From August 2003 to December 2011, MARS was used in 38 patients with ALF, 15 patients with AoCLF, and 17 cholestatic patients with intractable pruritus. The patients were examined using a standard liver function test and for vital signs, presence of ascites and encephalopathy before and after each treatment. The therapeutic response, patient status, follow-up status, and need for liver transplantation were determined.
RESULTS : Seventy-nine MARS procedures were performed. MARS was used for ALF in 54.3% of patients, AoCLF in 24.2%, and cholestatic disease in 21.5%. There were significant improvements in serum bilirubin (p = 0.000), aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.000), alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.030), gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase (p = 0.044), alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.006), and encephalopathy grade (p = 0.000). Thirty-eight ALF patients were listed for emergency liver transplantation and treated with MARS; 20 of these patients died on a waiting list, 18 survived. only four underwent liver transplantation and 14 (37%) recovered without transplantation after the MARS procedure.
CONCLUSION : MARS is a safe and effective procedure, especially for ALF patients. Our results suggest that MARS therapy can contribute to native liver recovery in ALF patients.

>>>> Liens PubMed : >>>> Article PDF : 120 Ko -

'Out-patient' albumin dialysis for cholestatic patients with intractable pruritus.
Leckie P, Tritto G, Mookerjee R, Davies N, Jones D, Jalan R.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Mar;35(6):696-704.

Intractable pruritus is a major problem for some patients with cholestasis. Albumin dialysis has been shown to ameliorate pruritus, but long-term outcome data are limited.
AIM :To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 'out-patient' albumin dialysis using the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) in the treatment of intractable pruritus in cholestatic patients referred for liver transplantation for symptomatic relief.
METHODS : Fifteen patients who failed to respond to standard medical therapy to control pruritus were included. Three MARS (6 h) sessions were performed per admission, and were repeated, if necessary. The intensity and severity of itch was quantified using itch severity and visual analogue scales (ISS and VAS).
RESULTS : Molecular adsorbent recirculating system treatment was safe and associated with immediate and complete response in 11 patients; two patients had a partial response and two patients had no response. Thirty-four treatments were performed during a follow-up period of 15.7 months (3-46) with patients requiring a mean of two admissions (1-6). The mean VAS and ISS improved significantly (both P < 0.001) with improvement in the patient's perception of their quality of life. The duration of acceptable relief in responders was 3.3 months (range 2-5). No serious adverse events were recorded, but the platelet count and haemoglobin were reduced significantly.
CONCLUSION : Molecular adsorbent recirculating system therapy delivered in an 'out-patient' setting is safe and effective with a high degree of patient acceptability. Albumin dialysis can be considered a viable therapeutic option for patients with severe intractable pruritus, in whom, the only other effective treatment option is liver transplantation.

>>>> Liens PubMed : >>>> Article PDF : 245 Ko -

Blood cytokine, chemokine and gene expression in cholestasis patients with intractable pruritis treated with a molecular adsorbent recirculating system: a case series.
Lisboa LF, Asthana S, Kremer A, Swain M, Bagshaw SM, Gibney N, Karvellas CJ.
Can J Gastroenterol. 2012 Nov;26(11):799-805.

BACKGROUND: The molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) is an albumin-dialysis modality that has been investigated predominantly in patients with acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure.
OBJECTIVES: To report the clinical efficacy and safety of MARS therapy for intractable pruritus in cholestasis patients with stable chronic liver disease, characterizing the impact of MARS on cytokine levels and on the transcriptome in the blood compartment.
METHODS:MARS therapy was performed on three patients with cholestatic liver disease using 8 h runs for two consecutive days. The expression levels of 65 cytokineschemokines and 24,000 genes were profiled by Luminex (Luminex Corporation, USA) and microarray, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:This investigative approach offers new insights into intractable pruritus and suggests future therapeutic targets. The clinical benefit of MARS in cholestasis patients with intractable pruritus may not exclusively result from filtration of pruritogens, but also from systemic changes in cytokine chemokine levels and changes in gene expression of blood cells.

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Treatment of resistant pruritus from cholestasis with albumin dialysis: combined analysis of patients from three centers.
Parés A, Herrera M, Avilés J, Sanz M, Mas A.
J Hepatol. 2010 Aug;53(2):307-12.

BACKGROUND & AIMS : Albumin dialysis using molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) is a new procedure for treating resistant pruritus from cholestasis, but it is usually published as a case report or a short series. Therefore, we analyzed patients with resistant pruritus treated with MARS from three centers, to assess the changes on pruritus and the indices of cholestasis.
METHODS : Twenty patients (12 female, mean age: 51+/-3.4 years) with chronic cholestatic liver disease or chronic liver-graft rejection were evaluated. The severity of pruritus was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after treatment, and 30 days thereafter. Liver tests, including total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase, cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bile acid were also determined, as well as the number of sessions and the coupled procedure (dialysis or perfusion).
RESULTS : Albumin dialysis resulted in a decrease of pruritus (VAS: from 70.2+/-4.8 to 20.1+/-4.2, p<0.001), which partially resumed after 30 days (38.7+/-6.6). VAS decreased by 72% immediately after treatment and by 51% after 1 month. Pruritus decreased in all but one patient. MARS resulted in a significant bile acid decrease of 41% after treatment and by 37% after 1 month. The effect of MARS on pruritus and markers of cholestasis was similar in patients with different diseases and was independent of the coupled procedure. The improvement of pruritus in individuals was positive in 75% of patients. No major adverse effects were observed.
CONCLUSIONS : Albumin dialysis using MARS is an effective procedure for managing resistant pruritus in most patients with chronic cholestasis and graft rejection.

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Thématique : Divers

Artificial liver support: a real step forward.
Saliba F1, Samuel D.

Since the early 1960s, several authors reported on the use of some experimental artificial liver devices in order to support patients with either acute liver failure (ALF) or end-stage chronic liver disease. In the 1980s, liver transplantation became an established real treatment replacing the whole liver with a major survival benefit. In the 1990s, the concept of albumin dialysis appeared as a new revolution in the concept of dialysis with the great capacity of removal of toxins, drugs and molecules strongly bound to albumin. Currently, three artificial liver support devices are available: The MARS®, the Prometheus® and the SPAD®. The most widely studied and used system is the MARS® that uses albumin dialysis to replace the detoxification function of the liver. MARS has shown in several uncontrolled studies and few randomized studies an improvement in the patient condition in terms of clinical symptoms (hepatic encephalopathy, pruritus, jaundice) and in liver and kidney biological parameters bringing these patients safely to liver transplantation. MARS® has shown for some patients with ALF (mainly paracetamol intoxication) an improvement of spontaneous or transplant free survival. The use of MARS in acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) require further studies based on strict definition of the syndrome. The use of albumin dialysis technique, require the performance of multiple sessions of treatment or even (in situations of ALF) a continuous treatment in order to improve spontaneous recovery or bridge these patients to liver transplantation. The performance of these systems would need further improvement. Large randomized trials are still needed in both patients with ALF and ACLF to establish the indications, the timing and the real place of liver support therapies. Meanwhile, early use of these devices in patients with ALF and ACLF could be considered as an additional tool among others in the management of these patients in specialized liver units.

Minerva Med. 2015 Feb;106(1):35-43. Lien Pub Med